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3D Phase Retrieval at Nano-Scale via Accelerated Wirtinger Flow

by   Zalan Fabian, et al.

Imaging 3D nano-structures at very high resolution is crucial in a variety of scientific fields. However, due to fundamental limitations of light propagation we can only measure the object indirectly via 2D intensity measurements of the 3D specimen through highly nonlinear projection mappings where a variety of information (including phase) is lost. Reconstruction therefore involves inverting highly non-linear and seemingly non-invertible mappings. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique where the 3D object is directly reconstructed from an accurate non-linear propagation model. Furthermore, we characterize the ambiguities of this model and leverage a priori knowledge to mitigate their effect and also significantly reduce the required number of measurements and hence the acquisition time. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm via numerical experiments aimed at nano-scale reconstruction of 3D integrated circuits. Moreover, we provide rigorous theoretical guarantees for convergence to stationarity.


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