Much recent work has explored various applications of egocentric RGB cameras, spurred on in part by the availability of low-cost mobile sensors such as Google Glass, Microsoft SenseCam, and the GoPro camera. Many of these applications, such as life-logging hodges2006sensecam , medical rehabilitation YangSL10 , and augmented reality BerghG11 , require inferring the interactions of the first-person observer with his/her environment while recognizing his/her activities. Whereas third-person-view activity analysis is often driven by human full-body pose, egocentric activities are often defined by hand pose and the objects that the camera wearer interacts with. Towards that end, we specifically focus on the tasks of hand detection and hand pose estimation from egocentric viewpoints of daily activities. We show that depth-based cues, extracted from an egocentric depth camera, provides an extraordinarily helpful cue for egocentric hand-pose estimation.
One may hope that depth simply “solves” the problem, based on successful systems for real-time human pose estimation based on Kinect sensor ShottonFCSFMKB11 and prior work on articulated hand pose estimation for RGB-D sensors bmvc2011oikonom ; TangYK13 ; KeskinKKA_ECCV12 ; Qian0WT014 ; TangYK13 . Recent approaches have also tried to exploit the 2.5D data from Kinect-like devices to understand complex scenarios such as object manipulation KyriazisA13 or two interacting hands Oikonomidis2012 . We show that various assumptions about visibility/occlusion and manual tracker initialization may not hold in an egocentric setting, making the problem still quite challenging.
Challenges: Three primary challenges arise for hand pose estimation in everyday egocentric views, compared to 3rd person views. First, tracking is less reliable. Even assuming that manual initialization is possible, a limited field-of-view from an egocentric viewpoint causes hands to frequently move outside the camera view frustum. This makes it difficult to apply tracking models that rely on accurate estimates from previous frames, since the hand may not even be visible. Second, active hands are difficult to segment.
Many previous systems for 3rd-person views make use of simple depth-based heuristics to both detect and segment the hand. These are difficult to apply during frames where users interact with objects and surfaces in their environment. Finally,fingers are often occluded by the hand (and other objects being manipulated) in egocentric views, considerably complicating articulated pose estimation. See examples in Fig. 1.
Our approach: We describe a successful approach to hand-pose estimation that makes use of the following key observations. First, depth cues provide an extraordinarily helpful signal for pose estimation in the near-field, first-person viewpoints. Though this observation may see obvious, state-of-the-art methods for egocentric hand detection do not make use of depth LiCVPR13 ; LiICCV13 . Moreoever, in our scenario, depth cues are not “cheating” as humans themselves make use of stereopsis for near-field analysis sakata1999neural ; fielder1996does . Second, the egocentric setting provides strong priors over viewpoint, grasps, and interacting-objects. We operationalize these priors by generating synthetic training data with a rendered 3D hand model. In contrast to previous work that uses a “floating hand”, we mount a synthetic egocentric camera to a virtual full-body character interacting with a library of everyday objects. This allows us to make use of contextual cues for both data generation and recognition (see Fig. 3). Third, we treat pose estimation (and detection) as a discriminative multi-class classification problem. To efficiently evaluate a large number of pose-specific classifiers, we make use of hierarchical cascade architectures. Unlike much past work, we classify global poses rather than local parts, which allows us to better reason about self-occlusions. Our classifiers process single frames, using a tracking-by-detection framework that avoids the need for manual initialization (see Fig. 2c-e).
Evaluation: Unlike human pose estimation, there exists no standard benchmarks for hand pose estimation, especially in egocentric videos. We believe that quantifiable performance is important for many broader applications such as health-care rehabilitation, for example. Thus, for the evaluation of our approach, we have collected and annotated (full 3D hand poses) our own benchmark dataset of real egocentric object manipulation scenes, which we will release to spur further research. It is surprisingly difficult to collect annotated datasets of hands performing real-world interactions; indeed, many prior work on hand pose estimation evaluate results on synthetically-generated data. We developed a semi-automatic labelling tool which allows to accurately annotate partially occluded hands and fingers in 3D, given real-world RGB-D data. We compare to both commercial and academic approaches to hand pose estimation, and demonstrate that our method provides state-of-the-art performance for both hand detection and pose estimation in egocentric RGB-D images.
Overview: This work is an extension of RogezKSMR2014 . This manuscript explains our approach with considerably more detail, reviews a broader collection of related work, and provide new and extensive comparisons with state-of-the-art methods. We review related work in Sec. 2 and present our approach in Sec. 3, focusing on our synthetic training data generation procedure (Sec. 3.1) and our hierarchical multi-class architecture (Sec. 3.2). We conclude with experimental results in Sec. 4.
2 Related work
Egocentric hands: Previous work examined the problem of recognizing objects fathi2011learning ; adl_cvpr12 and interpreting American Sign Language poses Starner98visualcontextual from wearable cameras. Much work has also focused on hand detection LiCVPR13 ; LiICCV13 , hand tracking KurataKKJE02 ; KolschT05 ; Kolsch10 ; MorerioMR13 , finger tracking DominguezKS06 , and hand-eye tracking RyooM13 from wearable cameras. Often, hand pose estimation is examined during active object manipulations MayolBMVC2004 ; ren2009egocentric ; RenG10 ; fathiunderstanding . Most such previous work makes use of RGB sensors. Our approach demonstrates that an egocentric depth camera makes things considerably easier.
Egocentric depth: Depth-based wearable cameras are attractive because depth cues can be used to better reason about occlusions arising from egocentric viewpoints. There has been surprisingly little prior work in this vein, with notable exceptions focusing on targeted applications such as navigation for the blind MannHJLRCD11 and recent work on egocentric object understanding DamenGMC12 ; LinHM2014 . We posit that one limitation may be the need for small form-factors for wearable technology, while structured light sensors such as the Kinect often make use of large baselines. We show that time-of-flight depth cameras are an attractive alternative for wearable depth-sensing, since they do not require large baselines and so require smaller form-factors.
Depth-based pose: Our approach is closely inspired by the Kinect system and its variants ShottonFCSFMKB11 , which makes use of synthetically generated depth maps for articulated pose estimation. Notably, Kinect follows in the tradition of local part models chenhierarchical ; ErolBNBT07 , which are attractive in that they require less training data to model a large collection of target poses. However, it is unclear if local methods can deal with large occlusions (such as those encountered during egocentric object manipulations) where local information can be ambiguous. Our approach differs in that our classifiers classify global poses rather than local parts. Finally, much previous work assumes that hands are easily segmented or detected. Such assumptions simply do not hold for everyday egocentric interactions.
Interacting objects: Estimating the pose of a hand manipulating an object is challenging HamerSKG09 due to occlusions and ambiguities in segmenting the object versus the hand. It is attractive to exploit contextual cues through simultaneously tracking hands KyriazisA13 ; KyriazisA14 and the object. BallanTGGP12 use multi-cameras to reduce the number of full occlusions. We jointly model hand and objects with synthetic hand-object exemplars as in RomeroKEK13 . However, instead of modeling floating hands, we model them in a realistic egocentric context that is constrained by the full human body.
Tracking vs detection: Temporal reasoning is also particularly attractive because one can use dynamics to resolve ambiguities arising from self and object occlusions. Much prior work on hand-pose estimation takes this route bmvc2011oikonom ; TangYK13 ; KeskinKKA_ECCV12 ; Qian0WT014 . Our approach differs in that we focus on single-image hand pose estimation, which is required to avoid manual (re)initialization. Exceptions include XuChe_iccv13 ; TangCTK14 ; TompsonSLP14 , who also process single images but focus on third-person views.
Generative vs discriminative: Generative model-based approaches have historically been more popular for hand pose estimation StengerPAMI06 . A detailed 3D model of the hand pose is usually employed for articulated pose tracking OikonomidisKA11 ; Oikonomidis2012 and detailed 3D pose estimation GorceFP11 . Discriminative approaches TangYK13 ; KeskinKKA_ECCV12 for hand pose estimation tend to require large datasets of training examples, synthetic, realistic or combined TangYK13 . Learning formalisms include boosted classifier trees OngB04 and randomized decision forestsKeskinKKA_ECCV12 , and regression forests TangYK13 ; TangCTK14 . Sridhar et al. SridharOT13 propose a hybrid approach that combines discriminative part-based pose retrieval with a generative model-based tracker. Our approach uses a computer graphics model to generate training data, which is then used to learn discriminative pose-specific classifiers.
Hierarchical cascades: We approach pose estimation as a hierarchical multi-class classification task, a strategy that dates back at least to Gavrila et al gavrila1999real . Our framework follows a line of work that focuses on efficient implementation through coarse-to-fine hierarchical cascades zehnder2008efficient ; stenger2007estimating ; chenhierarchical ; RogezROT12 . Our work differs in its discriminative training and large-scale ensemble averaging over an exponentially-large set of cascades, both of which considerably improve accuracy and speed.
3 Our method
Our method works by using a computer graphics model to generate synthetic training data. We then use this data to train a classifier for pose estimation. We describe each stage in turn.
3.1 Synthesizing training data
We represent a hand pose as a vector of joint angles of a kinematic skeleton. We use a hand-specific forward kinematic model to generate a 3D hand mesh given a particular . In addition to hand pose parameters , we also need to specify a camera vector that specifies both a viewpoint and position. We experimented with various priors and various rendering packages.
Floating hands vs full-body characters: Much work on hand pose estimation makes use of an isolated “floating” hand mesh model to generate synthetic training data. Popular software packages include the open-source libhand libhand and commercial Poser poser ; shakhnarovich2003fast . We posit that modeling a full character body, and specifically, the full arm, will provide important contextual cues for hand pose estimation. To generate egocentric data, we mount a synthetic camera on the chest of a virtual full-body character, naturally mimicking our physical data collection process. To generate data corresponding to different body and hand shapes, we make use of Poser’s character library.
Pose prior: Our hand model consists of 26 joint angles, . It is difficult to specify priors over such high-dimensional spaces. We take a non-parametric data-driven approach. We first obtain a training set of joint angles from a collection of grasping motion capture data romero2010spatio . We then augment this core set of poses with synthetic perturbations, making use of rejection sampling to remove invalid poses. Specifically, we first generate proposals by perturbing the joint angle of training sample with Gaussian noise
The noise varianceis obtained by manual tuning on validation data. Notably, we also perturb the entire arm of the full character-body, which generates natural (egocentric) viewpoint variations of hand configurations. Note that we consider smaller perturbations for fingers to keep grasping poses reasonable. We remove those samples that result in poses that are self-intersecting or lie outside the field-of-view.
Viewpoint prior: The above pose perturbation procedure for naturally generates realistic egocentric camera viewpoints for our full character models. We also performed some diagnostic experiments with a floating hand model. To specify a viewpoint prior in such cases, we limited the azimuth to lie between (corresponding to rear viewpoints), elevation to lie between and (since hands tend to lie below the chest mount), and bank to lie between . We obtained these ranges by looking at a variety of collected data (not used for testing).
Interacting objects: We wish to explore egocentric hand pose estimation in the context of natural, functional hand movement. This often involves interactions with the surrounding environment and manipulations of nearby objects. We posit that generating such contextual training data will be important for good test-time accuracy. However, modeling the space of hand grasps and the world of manipulable objects is itself a formidable challenge. We make use of the EveryDayHands animation library everyhands , which contains 40 canonical hand grasps. This package was originally designed as a computer animation tool, but we find the library to cover a reasonable taxonomy of grasps for egocentric recognition. A surprising empirical fact is that humans tend to use a small number of grasps for everyday activities - by some counts, 9 grasps are enough to account for 80% of human interactions ZhengRD11 . Following this observation, we manually amassed a collection of everyday common objects from model repositories warehouse . Our objects include spheres and cylinders (of varying sizes), utensils, phones, cups, etc. We paired each object a viable grasp (determined through visual inspection), yielding a final set of 52 hand-object combinations. We apply our rejection-sampling technique to generate a large number of grasp-pose and viewpoint perturbations, yielding a final dataset of 10,000 synthetic egocentric hand-object examples. Some examples are shown in Fig. 3.
3.2 Hierarchical cascades
We use our training set to learn a model that simultaneously detects hands and estimates their pose. Both tasks are addressed with a scanning window classifier, that outputs one of discrete pose classes or a background label. One may need a large to model lots of poses, increasing training/testing times and memory footprints. We address such difficulties through coarse-to-fine sharing and scanning-window cascades. Such architectures have been previously explored in zehnder2008efficient ; zehnder2008efficient ; chenhierarchical ; RogezROT12 . We contribute methods for efficient discriminative training, efficient run-time evaluation, and ensemble averaging. To describe our contributions, we first recast previous approaches in a mathematical framework that is amenable to our proposed modifications.
Hierarchical quantization: Firstly, we represent each training example as a depth image and a label vector of joint positions in a canonical coordinate frame with normalized position and scale. We quantize this space of poses into discrete values with -mean clustering. We then agglomeratively merge these quantized poses into a hierarchical tree with -leaves, following the procedure of RogezROT12 . Each node represents a coarse pose class. We visualize the tree in Fig. 4.
Coarse-to-fine sharing: Given a test image , a binary classifier tuned for coarse pose-class is evaluated as:
where is the indicator function which evaluates to 1 or 0. Here, is a “strong” classifier for class obtained by ANDing together “weak” binary predictions from a set . is the set of “ancestor” nodes encountered on the path from to the root of the tree (, its parents, grandparents, etc.). Each weak classifier
is a thresholded linear function that is defined on appearance features extracted from window. We use HOG appearance features extracted from subregions within the window, meaning that
can be interpreted as a zero-padded “part” template tuned for coarse-pose. Parts higher in the tree tend to be generic and capture appearance features common to many pose classes. Parts lower in the tree, toward the leaves, tend to capture pose-specific details.
Breadth-first search (BFS): The prediction for pose-class will be if and only if all classifiers in the ancestor set predict . If node fails to fire, its children (and their descendants) cannot be detected and so can be immediately rejected. We can efficiently prune away large portions of the pose-space when evaluating region with a truncated breadth-first search (BFS) through graph (see Alg. 1), making scanning-window evaluation at test-time quite efficient. Though a queue-based BFS is a natural implementation, we have not seen this explicitly described in previous work on hierarchical cascades zehnder2008efficient ; zehnder2008efficient ; chenhierarchical ; RogezROT12 . As we will show, such an “algorithmic” perspective immediately suggests straightforward improvements for training and modeling averaging.
Multi-class detection: When Eq (2) is evaluated on leaf classes, it is mathematically equivalent to a collection of linear chain cascades tuned for particular poses. These linear chains are visualized in Fig. 5. From this perspective, multiple poses (or leaf classes) may fire on a single window
. This is in contrast to other hierarchical classifiers such as decision trees, where only a single leaf can be reached. We generally report the highest-scoring pose as the final result, but alternate high-scoring hypotheses may still be useful (since they can be later refined using say, a tracker). We define the score for a particular pose class by aggregating binary predictions over a largeensemble of cascades, as described below.
Ensembles of cascades: To increase robustness, we aggregate predictions across an ensemble of classifiers. RogezROT12 describes an approach that makes use of a pool of weak part classifiers at node :
One can instantiate a tree by selecting a weak classifier (from its candidate pool ) for each node in graph . This defines a potentially exponential-large set of instantiations , where is the size of each candidate pool. In practice, RogezROT12 found that averaging predictions from a small random subset of trees significantly improved results.
3.3 Joint training of exponential ensembles
In this section, we present several improvements that apply in our problem domain. Because of local ambiguities due to self-occlusions, we expect individual part templates to be rather weak. This in turn may cause premature cascade rejections. We describe modifications that reduce premature rejections through joint training of weak classifiers and exponentially-large ensembles of cascades.
Sequential training: Much previous work assumes pose-specific classifiers are given stenger2007estimating ; chenhierarchical or independently learned RogezROT12 . For example, RogezROT12 trains weak classifiers by treating all all training examples from pose-class/node as positives, and examples from all other poses as negatives. Instead, we use only the training examples that pass through the rejection cascade up to node . This better reflects the scenario at test-time. This requires classifiers to be trained in a sequential fashion, in a similar coarse-to-fine BFS over nodes from the root to the leaves (Alg. 2 ).
Exponentially-large ensembles: Rogez et al. RogezROT12 average votes across a small number (around hundred) of explicitly-constructed trees. By averaging over a larger set, we reduce the chance of a premature cascade rejection. We describe a simple procedure for exactly computing the average over the exponentially-large set of in Alg. 3. Our insight is that one can compute an implicit summation (of votes) over the set by caching partial summations during the BFS. We refer the reader to the algorithm and caption for a detailed description. To train the pool of weak classifiers, we can leverage our sequential training procedure. Simply replace Lines 5 and 6 of Alg. 2 with the following:
where TrainEnsemble is a learning algorithm that returns an ensemble of models by randomly selecting subsets of training data or subsets of features. We select random subsets of features corresponding to local regions from window . This allows the returned models to be visualized as ”parts” (Fig. 5).
|Detection rate||Processing Time|
3.4 Implementation issues
Sparse search: We leverage two additional assumptions to speed up our scanning-window cascades: 1) hands must lie in a valid range of depths, i.e., hands can not appear further away from the chest-mounted camera than physically possible and 2) hands tend to be of a canonical size . These assumptions allow for a much sparser search compared to a classic scanning window, as only “valid windows” need be classified. A median filter is first applied to the depth map . Locations greater than arms length (75 cm) away are then pruned. Assuming a standard pinhole camera with focal length , the expected image height of a hand at valid location is given by
. We apply our hierarchical cascades to valid positions on a search grid (16-pixel strides in x-y direction) and quantized scales given by, visualized as red dots in Fig. 2c.
Features: We experiment with two additional sets of features . Following much past work, we make use of HOG descriptors computed from RGB signals. We also evaluated oriented gradient histograms on depth images (HOG-D). While not as common, such a gradient-based depth descriptor can be shown to capture histograms of normal directions (since normals can be computed from the cross product of depth gradients) spinello2011people . For depth, we use 5x5 HOG blocks and 16 signed orientation bins.
Depth sensor: Much recent work on depth-processing has been driven by the consumer-grade PrimeSense sensor sense2011primesensortmreference , which is based on structured light technology. At its core, this approach relies on two-view stereopsis (where correspondence estimation is made easier by active illumination). This may require large baselines between two views, which is undesirable for our egocentric application for two reasons; first, this requires larger form-factors, making the camera less mobile. Second, this produces occlusions for points in the scene that are not visible in both views. Time-of-flight depth sensing, while less popular, is based on a pulsed light emitter that can be placed arbitrarily close to the main camera, as no baseline is required. This produces smaller form factors and reduces occlusions in that camera view. Specifically, we make use of the consumer-grade TOF sensor from Creative Intel:PXC (see Fig. 2a).
Dataset: We have collected and annotated (full 3D hand poses) our own benchmark dataset of real egocentric object manipulation scenes, which we will release to spur further research 111Please visit www.gregrogez.net/. We developed a semi-automatic labelling tool which allows to accurately annotate partially occluded hands and fingers in 3D. A few 2D joints are first manually labelled in the image and used to select the closest synthetic exemplars in the training set. A full hand pose is then created combining the manual labelling and the selected 3D exemplar. This pose is manually refined, leading to the selection of a new exemplar, and the creation of a new pose. This iterative process is followed until an acceptable labelling is achieved. We captured 4 sequences of 1000 frames each, which were annotated every 10 frames in both RGB and Depth. We use 2 different subjects (male/female) and 4 different indoor scenes. Some examples are presented in Fig. 7.
Parameters: We train a cascade model trained with classes, a hierarchy of 6 levels and weak classifiers per node. We synthesize 100 training images per class. We experimented with larger numbers of classes (up to ), but did not observe significant improvement. We suspect this is due to the restricted set of viewpoints and grasp poses present in egocentric interactions (which we see as a contribution of our work). As a point of contrast, we trained a non-egocentric hand baseline in Fig. 8 that operated best at classes.
4.1 Benchmark performance
In this subsection, we validate our proposed architecture on a in-house dataset of 3rd-person hands. Our goal is to compare performance with standard baselines, verifying that our architecture is competitive. In this section, we make use of a generic set of 3rd-person views for training and use pose classes. We then use this system as a starting point for egocentric analysis, exploring various configurations and priors further in the next section.
|3rd-person hand detection||3rd-person finger tip detection||Egocentric hand detection||Egocentric finger tip detection|
Evaluation: We evaluate both hand detections and pose estimation. A candidate detection is deemed correct if it sufficiently overlaps the ground-truth bounding-box (in terms of area of intersection over union) by at least 50%. As some baseline systems report the pose of only confident fingers, we measure finger-tip detection accuracy as a proxy for pose estimation. To make this comparison fare, we only score visible finger tips and ignore occluded ones.
Baselines: We compare our method to state-of-the-art techniques from industry NiTE2 ; Intel:PXC and academia bmvc2011oikonom ; XuChe_iccv13 ; keskin2012hand ; LiICCV13 . Because public code is not available, we re-implemented Xu et al˙XuChe_iccv13 and Keskin et al˙keskin2012hand , verifying that our performance matched published results in TangCTK14 . Xu proposes a three stage pipeline: (1) detect position and in-plane rotation with a Hough forest (2) estimate joint angles with a second stage Hough forest (3) apply an articulated model to validate global consistency of joint estimates. Keskin’s model also has three stages: (1) estimate global hand shape from local votes (2) given the estimated shape, apply a shape-specific decision forest to predict a part label for each pixel and (3) apply mean-shift to regress joint positions. Because Keskin’s model assumes detection is solved, we experimented with several different first-stage detectors before settling on using Xu’s first stage Hough forest, due to its superior performance. Thus, both models share the same hand detector in our evaluation.
Third-person vs egocentric: Following Fig. 8
, our hierarchical cascades are competitive for 3rd-person hand detection (a) and state-of-the-art for finger detection (b). When evaluating the same models (without retraining) on egocentric test data (c) and (d), most methods (including ours) perform significantly worse. FORTH and NITE2 trackers catastrophically fail since hands frequently leave the view, and so are omitted from (c) and (d). Random Forest baselinesXuChe_iccv13 ; keskin2012hand drop in performance, even for hand detection. We posit this drop comes difficulties in segmenting egocentric hands (as shown in Fig. 9). To test this hypothesis, we develop a custom segmentation heuristic that looks for arm pixels near the image border, followed by connected-component segmentation. We also experiment with the (RGB) pixel-level hand detection algorithm from LiICCV13 . These segmentation algorithms outperform many baselines for hand-detection, but still underperforms our hierarchical cascade. We conclude that (1) hand pose estimation is considerably harder in the egocentric setting and (2) our (generic) pose estimation system is a state-of-the-art starting point for our subsequent analysis. Finally, we posit that our strong performance (at least for hand detection) arises from our global hand classifiers, while most baselines tend to classify local parts.
4.2 Diagnostic analysis
In this section, we further explore various configurations and priors for our approach, tuned for the egocentric setting.
Evaluation: Since our algorithm always returns a full articulated hand pose, we evaluate pose estimation with 2D-RMS re-projection error of keypoints. This time, we score the 20 keypoints defining the hand, including those which are occluded. We believe this is important, because numerous occlusions arise from egocentric viewpoints and object manipulation tasks. This evaluation criteria will give a better sense of how well our method actually recognizes global hand poses, even in case of partially occluded hands. For additional diagnosis, we categorize errors into detection failures, correct detections but incorrect viewpoint, and correct detection and viewpoint but incorrect articulated pose. Specifically, viewpoint-consistent detections are detections for which the RMS error of all 2D joint positions falls below a coarse threshold (10 pixels). Conditional 2D RMS error is the reprojection error for well-detected (viewpoint -consistent) hands. Finally, we also plot accuracy as a function of the number of N candidate detections per image. With enough hypotheses, accuracy must max out at 100%, but we demonstrate that good accuracy is often achievable with a small number of candidates (which may later be re-ranked, by say, a tracker).
Pose+viewpoint prior: We explore 3 different priors: 1) a generic prior obtained using a floating“libhand” hand with all possible random camera viewpoints and pose configurations, 2) a viewpoint prior obtained limiting a floating hand to valid egocentric viewpoints and 3) a viewpoint & pose prior obtained using our full synthesis engine described in Sec. 3.1, i.e. using a virtual egocentric camera mounted on a full body avatar manipulating objects. Note that we respectively consider 800, 140 and 100 classes to train these models. In Fig. 10, we show that, in general, a viewpoint prior produces a marginal improvement, while our full egocentric-specific pose and viewpoint prior considerably improves accuracy in all cases. This suggests that our synthesis algorithm correctly operationalizes egocentric viewpoint and pose priors, which in turn leads us to make better hypothesis for daily activities/grasp poses. With a modest number of candidates , our final system produces viewpoint-consistent detections in 90% of the test frames with an average 2D RMS error of 5 pixels. From a qualitative perspective, this performance appears accurate enough to initialize a tracker.
|VP Detection (N candidates)||Cond 2D RMSE (N candidates)|
|VP Det. - Frames with Objects||Cond 2D RMSE - Frames with Obj.||VP Det. - Frames without Obj.||Cond 2D RMSE - Frames without Obj.|
Ablative analysis: To further analyze our system, we perform an ablative analysis that turns “off” different aspects of our system: sequential training, ensemble of cascades, depth feature, sparse search and additional object prior. Hand detection and conditional 2D hand RMS error are given in Fig. 11. Depth HOG features and sequential training of parts are by far the crucial components of our system. Turning these parameters off decreases the detection rate by a substantial amount (between 10 and 30%). Our exponentially-large ensemble of cascades and sparse search marginally improve accuracy but are much more efficient: in average, the exponentially-large ensemble is 2.5 times faster than an explicit search over a 100-element ensemble (as in RogezROT12 ), while the sparse search is 3.15 times faster than a dense grid. Modeling objects produces better detections, particularly for larger numbers of candidates. In general, we find this additional prior helps more for those test frames with object manipulations as detailed below.
Modeling objects: In Fig. 12, we analyze the effect of object interactions on egocentric hand detection and pose estimation when employing an object prior (or not). We plot the accuracy (for both viewpoint-consistent detections and conditional 2D RMS error) on those test frames with (a,b) and without (c,d) object interactions. The corresponding plots computed on the whole dataset (using both types of frames) is already shown in Fig. 11a and Fig. 11b . We see that additional modeling of interacting hands and objects (with an object prior) somewhat improves performance for frames with object manipulation without affecting the performance of the system for the frames without objects.
Number of parts: In Fig. 13, we show the effect of varying the number of parts at each branch of our cascade model. We analyze both hand detection rate and hand pose average accuracy. These plots clearly validate our choice of using parts per branch (Fig. 13a). The performance decreases when considering more parts because the classifier is more likely to produce a larger amount of false positives. Additionally, we can see in Fig. 13b that using more than 3 parts does not improve the accuracy in terms of hand pose.
|VP Detection (N candidates)||Cond 2D RMSE (N candidates)|
Pixel threshold: In Fig. 14, we show the effect of varying the pixel-overlap threshold for computing correct detection and average pose accuracy. A lower pixel threshold decreases detection rate but increases pose accuracy on detected hands and vice-versa. Our 10-pixel threshold is a good trade-off between these 2 criteria. In (c) and (d), we show the percentage of detection and pose correctness for 2 different thresholds: 10 pixels (c) used throughout the main paper and 5 pixels (d). The measure we used for detection (blue area) is much more strict than a simple bounding boxes overlap criteria (green area) as it only considers valid detections when the hand pose is also correctly estimated.
|VP Detection (N candidates)||Cond 2D RMSE (N candidates)||Hand Detection (10-pixel threshold)||Hand Detection (5-pixel threshold)|
We have focused on the task of hand pose estimation from egocentric viewpoints. For this problem specification, we have shown that TOF depth sensors are particularly informative for extracting near-field interactions of the camera wearer with his/her environment. We describe a detailed, computer graphics model for generating egocentric training data with realistic full-body and object interactions. We use this data to train discriminative K-way classifiers for quantized pose estimation. To deal with a large number of classes, we advance previous methods for hierarchical cascades of multi-class rejectors, both in terms of accuracy and speed. Finally, we have provided an insightful analysis of the performance of our algorithm on a new real-world annotated dataset of egocentric scenes. Our method provides state-of-the-art performance for both hand detection and pose estimation in egocentric RGB-D images.
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