Synthesizing Diverse Lung Nodules Wherever Massively: 3D Multi-Conditional GAN-based CT Image Augmentation for Object Detection
Accurate computer-assisted diagnosis, relying on large-scale annotated pathological images, can alleviate the risk of overlooking the diagnosis. Unfortunately, in medical imaging, most available datasets are small/fragmented. To tackle this, as a Data Augmentation (DA) method, 3D conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can synthesize desired realistic/diverse 3D images as additional training data. However, no 3D conditional GAN-based DA approach exists for general bounding box-based 3D object detection, while it can locate disease areas with physicians' minimum annotation cost, unlike rigorous 3D segmentation. Moreover, since lesions vary in position/size/attenuation, further GAN-based DA performance requires multiple conditions. Therefore, we propose 3D Multi-Conditional GAN (MCGAN) to generate realistic/diverse 32 x 32 x 32 nodules placed naturally on lung Computed Tomography images to boost sensitivity in 3D object detection. Our MCGAN adopts two discriminators for conditioning: the context discriminator learns to classify real vs synthetic nodule/surrounding pairs with noise box-centered surroundings; the nodule discriminator attempts to classify real vs synthetic nodules with size/attenuation conditions. The results show that 3D Convolutional Neural Network-based detection can achieve higher sensitivity under any nodule size/attenuation at fixed False Positive rates and overcome the medical data paucity with the MCGAN-generated realistic nodules---even expert physicians fail to distinguish them from the real ones in Visual Turing Test.
06/12/2019 ∙ by Changhee Han, et al. ∙ 6 ∙ share
Computation of Total Kidney Volume from CT images in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease using Multi-Task 3D Convolutional Neural Networks
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) characterized by progressive growth of renal cysts is the most prevalent and potentially lethal monogenic renal disease, affecting one in every 500-100 people. Total Kidney Volume (TKV) and its growth computed from Computed Tomography images has been accepted as an essential prognostic marker for renal function loss. Due to large variation in shape and size of kidney in ADPKD, existing methods to compute TKV (i.e. to segment ADKP) including those based on 2D convolutional neural networks are not accurate enough to be directly useful in clinical practice. In this work, we propose multi-task 3D Convolutional Neural Networks to segment ADPK and achieve a mean DICE score of 0.95 and mean absolute percentage TKV error of 3.86. Additionally, to solve the challenge of class imbalance, we propose to simply bootstrap cross entropy loss and compare results with recently prevalent dice loss in medical image segmentation community.
09/07/2018 ∙ by Deepak Keshwani, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ share
Many CT slice images are stored with large slice intervals to reduce storage size in clinical practice. This leads to low resolution perpendicular to the slice images (i.e., z-axis), which is insufficient for 3D visualization or image analysis. In this paper, we present a novel architecture based on conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (cGANs) with the goal of generating high resolution images of main body parts including head, chest, abdomen and legs. However, GANs are known to have a difficulty with generating a diversity of patterns due to a phenomena known as mode collapse. To overcome the lack of generated pattern variety, we propose to condition the discriminator on the different body parts. Furthermore, our generator networks are extended to be three dimensional fully convolutional neural networks, allowing for the generation of high resolution images from arbitrary fields of view. In our verification tests, we show that the proposed method obtains the best scores by PSNR/SSIM metrics and Visual Turing Test, allowing for accurate reproduction of the principle anatomy in high resolution. We expect that the proposed method contribute to effective utilization of the existing vast amounts of thick CT images stored in hospitals.
08/30/2019 ∙ by Akira Kudo, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ share
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