Yong Li

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  • Improving Deep Neural Network with Multiple Parametric Exponential Linear Units

    Activation function is crucial to the recent successes of deep neural networks. In this paper, we first propose a new activation function, Multiple Parametric Exponential Linear Units (MPELU), aiming to generalize and unify the rectified and exponential linear units. As the generalized form, MPELU shares the advantages of Parametric Rectified Linear Unit (PReLU) and Exponential Linear Unit (ELU), leading to better classification performance and convergence property. In addition, weight initialization is very important to train very deep networks. The existing methods laid a solid foundation for networks using rectified linear units but not for exponential linear units. This paper complements the current theory and extends it to the wider range. Specifically, we put forward a way of initialization, enabling training of very deep networks using exponential linear units. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed initialization not only helps the training process but leads to better generalization performance. Finally, utilizing the proposed activation function and initialization, we present a deep MPELU residual architecture that achieves state-of-the-art performance on the CIFAR-10/100 datasets. The code is available at https://github.com/Coldmooon/Code-for-MPELU.

    06/01/2016 ∙ by Yang Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Device-to-Device Communications Enabled Energy Efficient Multicast Scheduling in mmWave Small Cells

    To keep pace with the rapid growth of mobile traffic demands, dense deployment of small cells in millimeter wave (mmWave) bands has become a promising candidate for next generation wireless communication systems. With a greatly increased data rate from huge bandwidth of mmWave communications, energy consumption should be mitigated for higher energy efficiency. Due to content popularity, many content-based mobile applications can be supported by the multicast service. mmWave communications exploit directional antennas to overcome high path loss, and concurrent transmissions can be enabled for better multicast service. On the other hand, device-to-device (D2D) communications in physical proximity should be exploited to improve multicast performance. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient multicast scheduling scheme, referred to as EMS, which utilizes both D2D communications and concurrent transmissions to achieve high energy efficiency. In EMS, a D2D path planning algorithm establishes multi-hop D2D transmission paths, and a concurrent scheduling algorithm allocates the links on the D2D paths into different pairings. Then the transmission power of links is adjusted by the power control algorithm. Furthermore, we theoretically analyze the roles of D2D communications and concurrent transmissions in reducing energy consumption. Extensive simulations under various system parameters demonstrate the superior performance of EMS in terms of energy consumption compared with the state-of-the-art schemes. Furthermore, we also investigate the choice of the interference threshold to optimize network performance.

    12/14/2017 ∙ by Yong Niu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Smartphone App Usage Prediction Using Points of Interest

    In this paper we present the first population-level, city-scale analysis of application usage on smartphones. Using deep packet inspection at the network operator level, we obtained a geo-tagged dataset with more than 6 million unique devices that launched more than 10,000 unique applications across the city of Shanghai over one week. We develop a technique that leverages transfer learning to predict which applications are most popular and estimate the whole usage distribution based on the Point of Interest (POI) information of that particular location. We demonstrate that our technique has an 83.0 successfully identifying the top five popular applications, and a 0.15 RMSE when estimating usage with just 10 about 25.7 the way for predicting which apps are relevant to a user given their current location, and which applications are popular where. The implications of our findings are broad: it enables a range of systems to benefit from such timely predictions, including operating systems, network operators, appstores, advertisers, and service providers.

    11/26/2017 ∙ by Donghan Yu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A New Wald Test for Hypothesis Testing Based on MCMC outputs

    In this paper, a new and convenient χ^2 wald test based on MCMC outputs is proposed for hypothesis testing. The new statistic can be explained as MCMC version of Wald test and has several important advantages that make it very convenient in practical applications. First, it is well-defined under improper prior distributions and avoids Jeffrey-Lindley's paradox. Second, it's asymptotic distribution can be proved to follow the χ^2 distribution so that the threshold values can be easily calibrated from this distribution. Third, it's statistical error can be derived using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. Fourth, most importantly, it is only based on the posterior MCMC random samples drawn from the posterior distribution. Hence, it is only the by-product of the posterior outputs and very easy to compute. In addition, when the prior information is available, the finite sample theory is derived for the proposed test statistic. At last, the usefulness of the test is illustrated with several applications to latent variable models widely used in economics and finance.

    01/03/2018 ∙ by Yong Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Privacy-preserving Sensory Data Recovery

    In recent years, a large scale of various wireless sensor networks have been deployed for basic scientific works. Massive data loss is so common that there is a great demand for data recovery. While data recovery methods fulfil the requirement of accuracy, the potential privacy leakage caused by them concerns us a lot. Thus the major challenge of sensory data recovery is the issue of effective privacy preservation. Existing algorithms can either accomplish accurate data recovery or solve privacy issue, yet no single design is able to address these two problems simultaneously. Therefore in this paper, we propose a novel approach Privacy-Preserving Compressive Sensing with Multi-Attribute Assistance (PPCS-MAA). It applies PPCS scheme to sensory data recovery, which can effectively encrypts sensory data without decreasing accuracy, because it maintains the homomorphic obfuscation property for compressive sensing. In addition, multiple environmental attributes from sensory datasets usually have strong correlation so that we design a MultiAttribute Assistance (MAA) component to leverage this feature for better recovery accuracy. Combining PPCS with MAA, the novel recovery scheme can provide reliable privacy with high accuracy. Firstly, based on two real datasets, IntelLab and GreenOrbs, we reveal the inherited low-rank features as the ground truth and find such multi-attribute correlation. Secondly, we develop a PPCS-MAA algorithm to preserve privacy and optimize the recovery accuracy. Thirdly, the results of real data-driven simulations show that the algorithm outperforms the existing solutions.

    03/29/2018 ∙ by Cai Chen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • DeepDPM: Dynamic Population Mapping via Deep Neural Network

    Dynamic high resolution data on human population distribution is of great importance for a wide spectrum of activities and real-life applications, but is too difficult and expensive to obtain directly. Therefore, generating fine-scaled population distributions from coarse population data is of great significance. However, there are three major challenges: 1) the complexity in spatial relations between high and low resolution population; 2) the dependence of population distributions on other external information; 3) the difficulty in retrieving temporal distribution patterns. In this paper, we first propose the idea to generate dynamic population distributions in full-time series, then we design dynamic population mapping via deep neural network(DeepDPM), a model that describes both spatial and temporal patterns using coarse data and point of interest information. In DeepDPM, we utilize super-resolution convolutional neural network(SRCNN) based model to directly map coarse data into higher resolution data, and a time-embedded long short-term memory model to effectively capture the periodicity nature to smooth the finer-scaled results from the previous static SRCNN model. We perform extensive experiments on a real-life mobile dataset collected from Shanghai. Our results demonstrate that DeepDPM outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods and a suite of frequent data-mining approaches. Moreover, DeepDPM breaks through the limitation from previous works in time dimension so that dynamic predictions in all-day time slots can be obtained.

    10/25/2018 ∙ by Zefang Zong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Barriers in Seamless QoS for Mobile Applications

    For seamless QoS, it is important that all the stakeholders, such as the hosts, applications, access networks, routers, and other middleboxes, follow a single protocol and they trust each other. In this article, we investigate the participation of these entities in providing QoS over wireless networks in light of DiffServ QoS architecture. We initiate the study by investigating WiFi and Cellular network traces, which further motivates us a thorough investigation of these stakeholders with empirical measurements. Our findings are the followings. (i) Modern mobile VoIP applications request QoS to the network. (ii) While the operating systems support basic APIs requesting QoS, application developers either are not aware of such requirements or they misuse the architecture for improved QoS. (iii) Wireless access networks rewrite the QoS requirements at the edge and enforce the rest of the routers or hops to provide best effort service. (iv) QoS requests are also nullified by the secure tunnels. (v) Although the access networks may nullify the QoS requests, the performance of the network still may differentiate traffic. We further emphasize that although the latest 5G network considers DiffServ QoS framework, it cannot deal with the challenges posed by the privacy related applications. Network neutrality is going to pose similar challenges.

    09/03/2018 ∙ by Mohammad A. Hoque, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning Recommender Systems from Multi-Behavior Data

    Most existing recommender systems leverage the data of one type of user behaviors only, such as the purchase behavior in E-commerce that is directly related to the business KPI (Key Performance Indicator) of conversion rate. Besides the key behavioral data, we argue that other forms of user behaviors also provide valuable signal on a user's preference, such as views, clicks, adding a product to shop carts and so on. They should be taken into account properly to provide quality recommendation for users. In this work, we contribute a novel solution named NMTR (short for Neural Multi-Task Recommendation) for learning recommender systems from multiple types of user behaviors. We develop a neural network model to capture the complicated and multi-type interactions between users and items. In particular, our model accounts for the cascading relationship among behaviors (e.g., a user must click on a product before purchasing it). To fully exploit the signal in the data of multiple types of behaviors, we perform a joint optimization based on the multi-task learning framework, where the optimization on a behavior is treated as a task. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate that NMTR significantly outperforms state-of-the-art recommender systems that are designed to learn from both single-behavior data and multi-behavior data. Further analysis shows that modeling multiple behaviors is particularly useful for providing recommendation for sparse users that have very few interactions.

    09/21/2018 ∙ by Chen Gao, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Neural Multi-Task Recommendation from Multi-Behavior Data

    Most existing recommender systems leverage user behavior data of one type, such as the purchase behavior data in E-commerce. We argue that other types of user behavior data also provide valuable signal, such as views, clicks, and so on. In this work, we contribute a new solution named NMTR (short for Neural Multi-Task Recommendation) for learning recommender systems from user multi-behavior data. In particular, our model accounts for the cascading relationship among different types of behaviors (e.g., a user must click on a product before purchasing it). We perform a joint optimization based on the multi-task learning framework, where the optimization on a behavior is treated as a task. Extensive experiments on the real-world dataset demonstrate that NMTR significantly outperforms state-of-the-art recommender systems that are designed to learn from both single-behavior data and multi-behavior data.

    09/21/2018 ∙ by Chen Gao, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Recommender Systems with Characterized Social Regularization

    Social recommendation, which utilizes social relations to enhance recommender systems, has been gaining increasing attention recently with the rapid development of online social network. Existing social recommendation methods are based on the fact that users preference or decision is influenced by their social friends' behaviors. However, they assume that the influences of social relation are always the same, which violates the fact that users are likely to share preference on diverse products with different friends. In this paper, we present a novel CSR (short for Characterized Social Regularization) model by designing a universal regularization term for modeling variable social influence. Our proposed model can be applied to both explicit and implicit iteration. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that CSR significantly outperforms state-of-the-art social recommendation methods.

    09/05/2018 ∙ by Tzu-heng Lin, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Sampler Design for Bayesian Personalized Ranking by Leveraging View Data

    Bayesian Personalized Ranking (BPR) is a representative pairwise learning method for optimizing recommendation models. It is widely known that the performance of BPR depends largely on the quality of negative sampler. In this paper, we make two contributions with respect to BPR. First, we find that sampling negative items from the whole space is unnecessary and may even degrade the performance. Second, focusing on the purchase feedback of E-commerce, we propose an effective sampler for BPR by leveraging the additional view data. In our proposed sampler, users' viewed interactions are considered as an intermediate feedback between those purchased and unobserved interactions. The pairwise rankings of user preference among these three types of interactions are jointly learned, and a user-oriented weighting strategy is considered during learning process, which is more effective and flexible. Compared to the vanilla BPR that applies a uniform sampler on all candidates, our view-enhanced sampler enhances BPR with a relative improvement over 37.03 and 16.40 considering users' additional feedback when modeling their preference on different items, which avoids sampling negative items indiscriminately and inefficiently.

    09/21/2018 ∙ by Jingtao Ding, et al. ∙ 0 share

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