We consider differentiable games: multi-objective minimization problems, where the goal is to find a Nash equilibrium. The machine learning community has recently started using extrapolation-based variants of the gradient method. A prime example is the extragradient, which yields linear convergence in cases like bilinear games, where the standard gradient method fails. The full benefits of extrapolation-based methods are not known: i) there is no unified analysis for a large class of games that includes both strongly monotone and bilinear games; ii) it is not known whether the rate achieved by extragradient can be improved, e.g. by considering multiple extrapolation steps. We answer these questions through new analysis of the extragradient's local and global convergence properties. Our analysis covers the whole range of settings between purely bilinear and strongly monotone games. It reveals that extragradient converges via different mechanisms at these extremes; in between, it exploits the most favorable mechanism for the given problem. We then present lower bounds on the rate of convergence for a wide class of algorithms with any number of extrapolations. Our bounds prove that the extragradient achieves the optimal rate in this class, and that our upper bounds are tight. Our precise characterization of the extragradient's convergence behavior in games shows that, unlike in convex optimization, the extragradient method may be much faster than the gradient method.
06/13/2019 ∙ by Waïss Azizian, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ share
Many recent machine learning tools rely on differentiable game formulations. While several numerical methods have been proposed for these types of games, most of the work has been on convergence proofs or on upper bounds for the rate of convergence of those methods. In this work, we approach the question of fundamental iteration complexity by providing lower bounds. We generalise Nesterov's argument -- used in single-objective optimisation to derive a lower bound for a class of first-order black box optimisation algorithms -- to games. Moreover, we extend to games the p-SCLI framework used to derive spectral lower bounds for a large class of derivative-based single-objective optimisers. Finally, we propose a definition of the condition number arising from our lower bound analysis that matches the conditioning observed in upper bounds. Our condition number is more expressive than previously used definitions, as it covers a wide range of games, including bilinear games that lack strong convex-concavity.
06/17/2019 ∙ by Adam Ibrahim, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ share
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