Nan Xu

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  • Joint Adaptive Neighbours and Metric Learning for Multi-view Subspace Clustering

    Due to the existence of various views or representations in many real-world data, multi-view learning has drawn much attention recently. Multi-view spectral clustering methods based on similarity matrixes or graphs are pretty popular. Generally, these algorithms learn informative graphs by directly utilizing original data. However, in the real-world applications, original data often contain noises and outliers that lead to unreliable graphs. In addition, different views may have different contributions to data clustering. In this paper, a novel Multiview Subspace Clustering method unifying Adaptive neighbours and Metric learning (MSCAM), is proposed to address the above problems. In this method, we use the subspace representations of different views to adaptively learn a consensus similarity matrix, uncovering the subspace structure and avoiding noisy nature of original data. For all views, we also learn different Mahalanobis matrixes that parameterize the squared distances and consider the contributions of different views. Further, we constrain the graph constructed by the similarity matrix to have exact c (c is the number of clusters) connected components. An iterative algorithm is developed to solve this optimization problem. Moreover, experiments on a synthetic dataset and different real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of MSCAM.

    09/12/2017 ∙ by Nan Xu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Diagnosing Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control

    With the increasing availability of traffic data and advance of deep reinforcement learning techniques, there is an emerging trend of employing reinforcement learning (RL) for traffic signal control. A key question for applying RL to traffic signal control is how to define the reward and state. The ultimate objective in traffic signal control is to minimize the travel time, which is difficult to reach directly. Hence, existing studies often define reward as an ad-hoc weighted linear combination of several traffic measures. However, there is no guarantee that the travel time will be optimized with the reward. In addition, recent RL approaches use more complicated state (e.g., image) in order to describe the full traffic situation. However, none of the existing studies has discussed whether such a complex state representation is necessary. This extra complexity may lead to significantly slower learning process but may not necessarily bring significant performance gain. In this paper, we propose to re-examine the RL approaches through the lens of classic transportation theory. We ask the following questions: (1) How should we design the reward so that one can guarantee to minimize the travel time? (2) How to design a state representation which is concise yet sufficient to obtain the optimal solution? Our proposed method LIT is theoretically supported by the classic traffic signal control methods in transportation field. LIT has a very simple state and reward design, thus can serve as a building block for future RL approaches to traffic signal control. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real datasets show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art traffic signal control methods.

    05/12/2019 ∙ by Guanjie Zheng, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • CoLight: Learning Network-level Cooperation for Traffic Signal Control

    Cooperation is critical in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL). In the context of traffic signal control, good cooperation among the traffic signal agents enables the vehicles to move through intersections more smoothly. Conventional transportation approaches implement cooperation by pre-calculating the offsets between two intersections. Such pre-calculated offsets are not suitable for dynamic traffic environments. To incorporate cooperation in reinforcement learning (RL), two typical approaches are proposed to take the influence of other agents into consideration: (1) learning the communications (i.e., the representation of influences between agents) and (2) learning joint actions for agents. While joint modeling of actions has shown a preferred trend in recent studies, an in-depth study of improving the learning of communications between agents has not been systematically studied in the context of traffic signal control. To learn the communications between agents, in this paper, we propose to use graph attentional network to facilitate cooperation. Specifically, for a target intersection in a network, our proposed model, CoLight, cannot only incorporate the influences of neighboring intersections but learn to differentiate their impacts to the target intersection. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use graph attentional network in the setting of reinforcement learning for traffic signal control. In experiments, we demonstrate that by learning the communication, the proposed model can achieve surprisingly good performance, whereas the existing approaches based on joint action modeling fail to learn well.

    05/11/2019 ∙ by Hua Wei, et al. ∙ 0 share

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