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What is RMSprop?

RMSprop is a gradient based optimization technique used in training neural networks. It was proposed by the father of back-propagation, Geoffrey Hinton. Gradients of very complex functions like neural networks have a tendency to either vanish or explode as the data propagates through the function (*refer to vanishing gradients problem). Rmsprop was developed as a stochastic technique for mini-batch learning.

RMSprop deals with the above issue by using a moving average of squared gradients to normalize the gradient. This normalization balances the step size  (momentum),  decreasing the step for large gradients to avoid exploding, and increasing the step for small gradients to avoid vanishing.

Simply put, RMSprop uses an adaptive learning rate instead of treating the learning rate as a hyperparameter. This means that the learning rate changes over time.