Zhang-Wei Hong

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  • Tactics of Adversarial Attack on Deep Reinforcement Learning Agents

    We introduce two tactics to attack agents trained by deep reinforcement learning algorithms using adversarial examples, namely the strategically-timed attack and the enchanting attack. In the strategically-timed attack, the adversary aims at minimizing the agent's reward by only attacking the agent at a small subset of time steps in an episode. Limiting the attack activity to this subset helps prevent detection of the attack by the agent. We propose a novel method to determine when an adversarial example should be crafted and applied. In the enchanting attack, the adversary aims at luring the agent to a designated target state. This is achieved by combining a generative model and a planning algorithm: while the generative model predicts the future states, the planning algorithm generates a preferred sequence of actions for luring the agent. A sequence of adversarial examples is then crafted to lure the agent to take the preferred sequence of actions. We apply the two tactics to the agents trained by the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning algorithm including DQN and A3C. In 5 Atari games, our strategically timed attack reduces as much reward as the uniform attack (i.e., attacking at every time step) does by attacking the agent 4 times less often. Our enchanting attack lures the agent toward designated target states with a more than 70 available at http://yclin.me/adversarial_attack_RL/

    03/08/2017 ∙ by Yen-Chen Lin, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Deep Policy Inference Q-Network for Multi-Agent Systems

    We present DPIQN, a deep policy inference Q-network that targets multi-agent systems composed of controllable agents, collaborators, and opponents that interact with each other. We focus on one challenging issue in such systems---modeling agents with varying strategies---and propose to employ "policy features" learned from raw observations (e.g., raw images) of collaborators and opponents by inferring their policies. DPIQN incorporates the learned policy features as a hidden vector into its own deep Q-network (DQN), such that it is able to predict better Q values for the controllable agents than the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning models. We further propose an enhanced version of DPIQN, called deep recurrent policy inference Q-network (DRPIQN), for handling partial observability. Both DPIQN and DRPIQN are trained by an adaptive training procedure, which adjusts the network's attention to learn the policy features and its own Q-values at different phases of the training process. We present a comprehensive analysis of DPIQN and DRPIQN, and highlight their effectiveness and generalizability in various multi-agent settings. Our models are evaluated in a classic soccer game involving both competitive and collaborative scenarios. Experimental results performed on 1 vs. 1 and 2 vs. 2 games show that DPIQN and DRPIQN demonstrate superior performance to the baseline DQN and deep recurrent Q-network (DRQN) models. We also explore scenarios in which collaborators or opponents dynamically change their policies, and show that DPIQN and DRPIQN do lead to better overall performance in terms of stability and mean scores.

    12/21/2017 ∙ by Zhang-Wei Hong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Diversity-Driven Exploration Strategy for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Efficient exploration remains a challenging research problem in reinforcement learning, especially when an environment contains large state spaces, deceptive local optima, or sparse rewards. To tackle this problem, we present a diversity-driven approach for exploration, which can be easily combined with both off- and on-policy reinforcement learning algorithms. We show that by simply adding a distance measure to the loss function, the proposed methodology significantly enhances an agent's exploratory behaviors, and thus preventing the policy from being trapped in local optima. We further propose an adaptive scaling method for stabilizing the learning process. Our experimental results in Atari 2600 show that our method outperforms baseline approaches in several tasks in terms of mean scores and exploration efficiency.

    02/13/2018 ∙ by Zhang-Wei Hong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Virtual-to-Real: Learning to Control in Visual Semantic Segmentation

    Collecting training data from the physical world is usually time-consuming and even dangerous for fragile robots, and thus, recent advances in robot learning advocate the use of simulators as the training platform. Unfortunately, the reality gap between synthetic and real visual data prohibits direct migration of the models trained in virtual worlds to the real world. This paper proposes a modular architecture for tackling the virtual-to-real problem. The proposed architecture separates the learning model into a perception module and a control policy module, and uses semantic image segmentation as the meta representation for relating these two modules. The perception module translates the perceived RGB image to semantic image segmentation. The control policy module is implemented as a deep reinforcement learning agent, which performs actions based on the translated image segmentation. Our architecture is evaluated in an obstacle avoidance task and a target following task. Experimental results show that our architecture significantly outperforms all of the baseline methods in both virtual and real environments, and demonstrates a faster learning curve than them. We also present a detailed analysis for a variety of variant configurations, and validate the transferability of our modular architecture.

    02/01/2018 ∙ by Zhang-Wei Hong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Adversarial Exploration Strategy for Self-Supervised Imitation Learning

    We present an adversarial exploration strategy, a simple yet effective imitation learning scheme that incentivizes exploration of an environment without any extrinsic reward or human demonstration. Our framework consists of a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent and an inverse dynamics model contesting with each other. The former collects training samples for the latter, and its objective is to maximize the error of the latter. The latter is trained with samples collected by the former, and generates rewards for the former when it fails to predict the actual action taken by the former. In such a competitive setting, the DRL agent learns to generate samples that the inverse dynamics model fails to predict correctly, and the inverse dynamics model learns to adapt to the challenging samples. We further propose a reward structure that ensures the DRL agent collects only moderately hard samples and not overly hard ones that prevent the inverse model from imitating effectively. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method on several OpenAI gym robotic arm and hand manipulation tasks against a number of baseline models. Experimental results show that our method is comparable to that directly trained with expert demonstrations, and superior to the other baselines even without any human priors.

    06/26/2018 ∙ by Zhang-Wei Hong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Model-based Lookahead Reinforcement Learning

    Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL) allows data-efficient learning which is required in real world applications such as robotics. However, despite the impressive data-efficiency, MBRL does not achieve the final performance of state-of-the-art Model-free Reinforcement Learning (MFRL) methods. We leverage the strengths of both realms and propose an approach that obtains high performance with a small amount of data. In particular, we combine MFRL and Model Predictive Control (MPC). While MFRL's strength in exploration allows us to train a better forward dynamics model for MPC, MPC improves the performance of the MFRL policy by sampling-based planning. The experimental results in standard continuous control benchmarks show that our approach can achieve MFRL`s level of performance while being as data-efficient as MBRL.

    08/15/2019 ∙ by Zhang-Wei Hong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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