Scott Reed

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Senior Research Scientist at DeepMind Technologies since 2016, PhD Student - Machine Learning at University of Michigan from 2012-2016, PhD Intern at Google Inc. 2014-2015, Software Engineering Intern at Google 2012, Financial Software Developer at Bloomberg LP from 2011-2012, Software Engineering Intern ( Mobile Ads Engineering) at Google 2010, Research Assistant at University of Michigan School of Public Health from 2008-2010, Teaching Assistant at University of Michigan 2010, PhD, Computer Science at University of Michigan 2016.

  • Learning Compositional Neural Programs with Recursive Tree Search and Planning

    We propose a novel reinforcement learning algorithm, AlphaNPI, that incorporates the strengths of Neural Programmer-Interpreters (NPI) and AlphaZero. NPI contributes structural biases in the form of modularity, hierarchy and recursion, which are helpful to reduce sample complexity, improve generalization and increase interpretability. AlphaZero contributes powerful neural network guided search algorithms, which we augment with recursion. AlphaNPI only assumes a hierarchical program specification with sparse rewards: 1 when the program execution satisfies the specification, and 0 otherwise. Using this specification, AlphaNPI is able to train NPI models effectively with RL for the first time, completely eliminating the need for strong supervision in the form of execution traces. The experiments show that AlphaNPI can sort as well as previous strongly supervised NPI variants. The AlphaNPI agent is also trained on a Tower of Hanoi puzzle with two disks and is shown to generalize to puzzles with an arbitrary number of disk

    05/30/2019 ∙ by Thomas Pierrot, et al. ∙ 7 share

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  • Neural Arithmetic Logic Units

    Neural networks can learn to represent and manipulate numerical information, but they seldom generalize well outside of the range of numerical values encountered during training. To encourage more systematic numerical extrapolation, we propose an architecture that represents numerical quantities as linear activations which are manipulated using primitive arithmetic operators, controlled by learned gates. We call this module a neural arithmetic logic unit (NALU), by analogy to the arithmetic logic unit in traditional processors. Experiments show that NALU-enhanced neural networks can learn to track time, perform arithmetic over images of numbers, translate numerical language into real-valued scalars, execute computer code, and count objects in images. In contrast to conventional architectures, we obtain substantially better generalization both inside and outside of the range of numerical values encountered during training, often extrapolating orders of magnitude beyond trained numerical ranges.

    08/01/2018 ∙ by Andrew Trask, et al. ∙ 6 share

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  • One-Shot High-Fidelity Imitation: Training Large-Scale Deep Nets with RL

    Humans are experts at high-fidelity imitation -- closely mimicking a demonstration, often in one attempt. Humans use this ability to quickly solve a task instance, and to bootstrap learning of new tasks. Achieving these abilities in autonomous agents is an open problem. In this paper, we introduce an off-policy RL algorithm (MetaMimic) to narrow this gap. MetaMimic can learn both (i) policies for high-fidelity one-shot imitation of diverse novel skills, and (ii) policies that enable the agent to solve tasks more efficiently than the demonstrators. MetaMimic relies on the principle of storing all experiences in a memory and replaying these to learn massive deep neural network policies by off-policy RL. This paper introduces, to the best of our knowledge, the largest existing neural networks for deep RL and shows that larger networks with normalization are needed to achieve one-shot high-fidelity imitation on a challenging manipulation task. The results also show that both types of policy can be learned from vision, in spite of the task rewards being sparse, and without access to demonstrator actions.

    10/11/2018 ∙ by Tom Le Paine, et al. ∙ 4 share

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  • Sample Efficient Adaptive Text-to-Speech

    We present a meta-learning approach for adaptive text-to-speech (TTS) with few data. During training, we learn a multi-speaker model using a shared conditional WaveNet core and independent learned embeddings for each speaker. The aim of training is not to produce a neural network with fixed weights, which is then deployed as a TTS system. Instead, the aim is to produce a network that requires few data at deployment time to rapidly adapt to new speakers. We introduce and benchmark three strategies: (i) learning the speaker embedding while keeping the WaveNet core fixed, (ii) fine-tuning the entire architecture with stochastic gradient descent, and (iii) predicting the speaker embedding with a trained neural network encoder. The experiments show that these approaches are successful at adapting the multi-speaker neural network to new speakers, obtaining state-of-the-art results in both sample naturalness and voice similarity with merely a few minutes of audio data from new speakers.

    09/27/2018 ∙ by Yutian Chen, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Generative Adversarial Text to Image Synthesis

    Automatic synthesis of realistic images from text would be interesting and useful, but current AI systems are still far from this goal. However, in recent years generic and powerful recurrent neural network architectures have been developed to learn discriminative text feature representations. Meanwhile, deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (GANs) have begun to generate highly compelling images of specific categories, such as faces, album covers, and room interiors. In this work, we develop a novel deep architecture and GAN formulation to effectively bridge these advances in text and image model- ing, translating visual concepts from characters to pixels. We demonstrate the capability of our model to generate plausible images of birds and flowers from detailed text descriptions.

    05/17/2016 ∙ by Scott Reed, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Neural Programmer-Interpreters

    We propose the neural programmer-interpreter (NPI): a recurrent and compositional neural network that learns to represent and execute programs. NPI has three learnable components: a task-agnostic recurrent core, a persistent key-value program memory, and domain-specific encoders that enable a single NPI to operate in multiple perceptually diverse environments with distinct affordances. By learning to compose lower-level programs to express higher-level programs, NPI reduces sample complexity and increases generalization ability compared to sequence-to-sequence LSTMs. The program memory allows efficient learning of additional tasks by building on existing programs. NPI can also harness the environment (e.g. a scratch pad with read-write pointers) to cache intermediate results of computation, lessening the long-term memory burden on recurrent hidden units. In this work we train the NPI with fully-supervised execution traces; each program has example sequences of calls to the immediate subprograms conditioned on the input. Rather than training on a huge number of relatively weak labels, NPI learns from a small number of rich examples. We demonstrate the capability of our model to learn several types of compositional programs: addition, sorting, and canonicalizing 3D models. Furthermore, a single NPI learns to execute these programs and all 21 associated subprograms.

    11/19/2015 ∙ by Scott Reed, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Parallel Multiscale Autoregressive Density Estimation

    PixelCNN achieves state-of-the-art results in density estimation for natural images. Although training is fast, inference is costly, requiring one network evaluation per pixel; O(N) for N pixels. This can be sped up by caching activations, but still involves generating each pixel sequentially. In this work, we propose a parallelized PixelCNN that allows more efficient inference by modeling certain pixel groups as conditionally independent. Our new PixelCNN model achieves competitive density estimation and orders of magnitude speedup - O(log N) sampling instead of O(N) - enabling the practical generation of 512x512 images. We evaluate the model on class-conditional image generation, text-to-image synthesis, and action-conditional video generation, showing that our model achieves the best results among non-pixel-autoregressive density models that allow efficient sampling.

    03/10/2017 ∙ by Scott Reed, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning What and Where to Draw

    Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently demonstrated the capability to synthesize compelling real-world images, such as room interiors, album covers, manga, faces, birds, and flowers. While existing models can synthesize images based on global constraints such as a class label or caption, they do not provide control over pose or object location. We propose a new model, the Generative Adversarial What-Where Network (GAWWN), that synthesizes images given instructions describing what content to draw in which location. We show high-quality 128 x 128 image synthesis on the Caltech-UCSD Birds dataset, conditioned on both informal text descriptions and also object location. Our system exposes control over both the bounding box around the bird and its constituent parts. By modeling the conditional distributions over part locations, our system also enables conditioning on arbitrary subsets of parts (e.g. only the beak and tail), yielding an efficient interface for picking part locations. We also show preliminary results on the more challenging domain of text- and location-controllable synthesis of images of human actions on the MPII Human Pose dataset.

    10/08/2016 ∙ by Scott Reed, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Weakly-supervised Disentangling with Recurrent Transformations for 3D View Synthesis

    An important problem for both graphics and vision is to synthesize novel views of a 3D object from a single image. This is particularly challenging due to the partial observability inherent in projecting a 3D object onto the image space, and the ill-posedness of inferring object shape and pose. However, we can train a neural network to address the problem if we restrict our attention to specific object categories (in our case faces and chairs) for which we can gather ample training data. In this paper, we propose a novel recurrent convolutional encoder-decoder network that is trained end-to-end on the task of rendering rotated objects starting from a single image. The recurrent structure allows our model to capture long-term dependencies along a sequence of transformations. We demonstrate the quality of its predictions for human faces on the Multi-PIE dataset and for a dataset of 3D chair models, and also show its ability to disentangle latent factors of variation (e.g., identity and pose) without using full supervision.

    01/05/2016 ∙ by Jimei Yang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • SSD: Single Shot MultiBox Detector

    We present a method for detecting objects in images using a single deep neural network. Our approach, named SSD, discretizes the output space of bounding boxes into a set of default boxes over different aspect ratios and scales per feature map location. At prediction time, the network generates scores for the presence of each object category in each default box and produces adjustments to the box to better match the object shape. Additionally, the network combines predictions from multiple feature maps with different resolutions to naturally handle objects of various sizes. Our SSD model is simple relative to methods that require object proposals because it completely eliminates proposal generation and subsequent pixel or feature resampling stage and encapsulates all computation in a single network. This makes SSD easy to train and straightforward to integrate into systems that require a detection component. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC, MS COCO, and ILSVRC datasets confirm that SSD has comparable accuracy to methods that utilize an additional object proposal step and is much faster, while providing a unified framework for both training and inference. Compared to other single stage methods, SSD has much better accuracy, even with a smaller input image size. For 300× 300 input, SSD achieves 72.1 X and for 500× 500 input, SSD achieves 75.1 comparable state of the art Faster R-CNN model. Code is available at https://github.com/weiliu89/caffe/tree/ssd .

    12/08/2015 ∙ by Wei Liu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Training Deep Neural Networks on Noisy Labels with Bootstrapping

    Current state-of-the-art deep learning systems for visual object recognition and detection use purely supervised training with regularization such as dropout to avoid overfitting. The performance depends critically on the amount of labeled examples, and in current practice the labels are assumed to be unambiguous and accurate. However, this assumption often does not hold; e.g. in recognition, class labels may be missing; in detection, objects in the image may not be localized; and in general, the labeling may be subjective. In this work we propose a generic way to handle noisy and incomplete labeling by augmenting the prediction objective with a notion of consistency. We consider a prediction consistent if the same prediction is made given similar percepts, where the notion of similarity is between deep network features computed from the input data. In experiments we demonstrate that our approach yields substantial robustness to label noise on several datasets. On MNIST handwritten digits, we show that our model is robust to label corruption. On the Toronto Face Database, we show that our model handles well the case of subjective labels in emotion recognition, achieving state-of-the- art results, and can also benefit from unlabeled face images with no modification to our method. On the ILSVRC2014 detection challenge data, we show that our approach extends to very deep networks, high resolution images and structured outputs, and results in improved scalable detection.

    12/20/2014 ∙ by Scott Reed, et al. ∙ 0 share

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