Ross Girshick

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Research Scientist at Facebook AI Research, Post-doctoral fellow at UC Berkeley

  • Exploring Randomly Wired Neural Networks for Image Recognition

    Neural networks for image recognition have evolved through extensive manual design from simple chain-like models to structures with multiple wiring paths. The success of ResNets and DenseNets is due in large part to their innovative wiring plans. Now, neural architecture search (NAS) studies are exploring the joint optimization of wiring and operation types, however, the space of possible wirings is constrained and still driven by manual design despite being searched. In this paper, we explore a more diverse set of connectivity patterns through the lens of randomly wired neural networks. To do this, we first define the concept of a stochastic network generator that encapsulates the entire network generation process. Encapsulation provides a unified view of NAS and randomly wired networks. Then, we use three classical random graph models to generate randomly wired graphs for networks. The results are surprising: several variants of these random generators yield network instances that have competitive accuracy on the ImageNet benchmark. These results suggest that new efforts focusing on designing better network generators may lead to new breakthroughs by exploring less constrained search spaces with more room for novel design.

    04/02/2019 ∙ by Saining Xie, et al. ∙ 36 share

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  • TensorMask: A Foundation for Dense Object Segmentation

    Sliding-window object detectors that generate bounding-box object predictions over a dense, regular grid have advanced rapidly and proven popular. In contrast, modern instance segmentation approaches are dominated by methods that first detect object bounding boxes, and then crop and segment these regions, as popularized by Mask R-CNN. In this work, we investigate the paradigm of dense sliding-window instance segmentation, which is surprisingly under-explored. Our core observation is that this task is fundamentally different than other dense prediction tasks such as semantic segmentation or bounding-box object detection, as the output at every spatial location is itself a geometric structure with its own spatial dimensions. To formalize this, we treat dense instance segmentation as a prediction task over 4D tensors and present a general framework called TensorMask that explicitly captures this geometry and enables novel operators on 4D tensors. We demonstrate that the tensor view leads to large gains over baselines that ignore this structure, and leads to results comparable to Mask R-CNN. These promising results suggest that TensorMask can serve as a foundation for novel advances in dense mask prediction and a more complete understanding of the task. Code will be made available.

    03/28/2019 ∙ by Xinlei Chen, et al. ∙ 28 share

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  • Panoptic Feature Pyramid Networks

    The recently introduced panoptic segmentation task has renewed our community's interest in unifying the tasks of instance segmentation (for thing classes) and semantic segmentation (for stuff classes). However, current state-of-the-art methods for this joint task use separate and dissimilar networks for instance and semantic segmentation, without performing any shared computation. In this work, we aim to unify these methods at the architectural level, designing a single network for both tasks. Our approach is to endow Mask R-CNN, a popular instance segmentation method, with a semantic segmentation branch using a shared Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) backbone. Surprisingly, this simple baseline not only remains effective for instance segmentation, but also yields a lightweight, top-performing method for semantic segmentation. In this work, we perform a detailed study of this minimally extended version of Mask R-CNN with FPN, which we refer to as Panoptic FPN, and show it is a robust and accurate baseline for both tasks. Given its effectiveness and conceptual simplicity, we hope our method can serve as a strong baseline and aid future research in panoptic segmentation.

    01/08/2019 ∙ by Alexander Kirillov, et al. ∙ 10 share

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  • Rethinking ImageNet Pre-training

    We report competitive results on object detection and instance segmentation on the COCO dataset using standard models trained from random initialization. The results are no worse than their ImageNet pre-training counterparts even when using the hyper-parameters of the baseline system (Mask R-CNN) that were optimized for fine-tuning pre-trained models, with the sole exception of increasing the number of training iterations so the randomly initialized models may converge. Training from random initialization is surprisingly robust; our results hold even when: (i) using only 10 deeper and wider models, and (iii) for multiple tasks and metrics. Experiments show that ImageNet pre-training speeds up convergence early in training, but does not necessarily provide regularization or improve final target task accuracy. To push the envelope we demonstrate 50.9 AP on COCO object detection without using any external data---a result on par with the top COCO 2017 competition results that used ImageNet pre-training. These observations challenge the conventional wisdom of ImageNet pre-training for dependent tasks and we expect these discoveries will encourage people to rethink the current de facto paradigm of `pre-training and fine-tuning' in computer vision.

    11/21/2018 ∙ by Kaiming He, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Long-Term Feature Banks for Detailed Video Understanding

    To understand the world, we humans constantly need to relate the present to the past, and put events in context. In this paper, we enable existing video models to do the same. We propose a long-term feature bank---supportive information extracted over the entire span of a video---to augment state-of-the-art video models that otherwise would only view short clips of 2-5 seconds. Our experiments demonstrate that augmenting 3D convolutional networks with a long-term feature bank yields state-of-the-art results on three challenging video datasets: AVA, EPIC-Kitchens, and Charades.

    12/12/2018 ∙ by Chao-Yuan Wu, et al. ∙ 4 share

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  • Learning to Segment Every Thing

    Existing methods for object instance segmentation require all training instances to be labeled with segmentation masks. This requirement makes it expensive to annotate new categories and has restricted instance segmentation models to 100 well-annotated classes. The goal of this paper is to propose a new partially supervised training paradigm, together with a novel weight transfer function, that enables training instance segmentation models over a large set of categories for which all have box annotations, but only a small fraction have mask annotations. These contributions allow us to train Mask R-CNN to detect and segment 3000 visual concepts using box annotations from the Visual Genome dataset and mask annotations from the 80 classes in the COCO dataset. We carefully evaluate our proposed approach in a controlled study on the COCO dataset. This work is a first step towards instance segmentation models that have broad comprehension of the visual world.

    11/28/2017 ∙ by Ronghang Hu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Non-local Neural Networks

    Both convolutional and recurrent operations are building blocks that process one local neighborhood at a time. In this paper, we present non-local operations as a generic family of building blocks for capturing long-range dependencies. Inspired by the classical non-local means method in computer vision, our non-local operation computes the response at a position as a weighted sum of the features at all positions. This building block can be plugged into many computer vision architectures. On the task of video classification, even without any bells and whistles, our non-local models can compete or outperform current competition winners on both Kinetics and Charades datasets. In static image recognition, our non-local models improve object detection/segmentation and pose estimation on the COCO suite of tasks. Code will be made available.

    11/21/2017 ∙ by Xiaolong Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Focal Loss for Dense Object Detection

    The highest accuracy object detectors to date are based on a two-stage approach popularized by R-CNN, where a classifier is applied to a sparse set of candidate object locations. In contrast, one-stage detectors that are applied over a regular, dense sampling of possible object locations have the potential to be faster and simpler, but have trailed the accuracy of two-stage detectors thus far. In this paper, we investigate why this is the case. We discover that the extreme foreground-background class imbalance encountered during training of dense detectors is the central cause. We propose to address this class imbalance by reshaping the standard cross entropy loss such that it down-weights the loss assigned to well-classified examples. Our novel Focal Loss focuses training on a sparse set of hard examples and prevents the vast number of easy negatives from overwhelming the detector during training. To evaluate the effectiveness of our loss, we design and train a simple dense detector we call RetinaNet. Our results show that when trained with the focal loss, RetinaNet is able to match the speed of previous one-stage detectors while surpassing the accuracy of all existing state-of-the-art two-stage detectors.

    08/07/2017 ∙ by Tsung-Yi Lin, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Accurate, Large Minibatch SGD: Training ImageNet in 1 Hour

    Deep learning thrives with large neural networks and large datasets. However, larger networks and larger datasets result in longer training times that impede research and development progress. Distributed synchronous SGD offers a potential solution to this problem by dividing SGD minibatches over a pool of parallel workers. Yet to make this scheme efficient, the per-worker workload must be large, which implies nontrivial growth in the SGD minibatch size. In this paper, we empirically show that on the ImageNet dataset large minibatches cause optimization difficulties, but when these are addressed the trained networks exhibit good generalization. Specifically, we show no loss of accuracy when training with large minibatch sizes up to 8192 images. To achieve this result, we adopt a linear scaling rule for adjusting learning rates as a function of minibatch size and develop a new warmup scheme that overcomes optimization challenges early in training. With these simple techniques, our Caffe2-based system trains ResNet-50 with a minibatch size of 8192 on 256 GPUs in one hour, while matching small minibatch accuracy. Using commodity hardware, our implementation achieves 90 GPUs. This system enables us to train visual recognition models on internet-scale data with high efficiency.

    06/08/2017 ∙ by Priya Goyal, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Mask R-CNN

    We present a conceptually simple, flexible, and general framework for object instance segmentation. Our approach efficiently detects objects in an image while simultaneously generating a high-quality segmentation mask for each instance. The method, called Mask R-CNN, extends Faster R-CNN by adding a branch for predicting an object mask in parallel with the existing branch for bounding box recognition. Mask R-CNN is simple to train and adds only a small overhead to Faster R-CNN, running at 5 fps. Moreover, Mask R-CNN is easy to generalize to other tasks, e.g., allowing us to estimate human poses in the same framework. We show top results in all three tracks of the COCO suite of challenges, including instance segmentation, bounding-box object detection, and person keypoint detection. Without tricks, Mask R-CNN outperforms all existing, single-model entries on every task, including the COCO 2016 challenge winners. We hope our simple and effective approach will serve as a solid baseline and help ease future research in instance-level recognition. Code will be made available.

    03/20/2017 ∙ by Kaiming He, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning Features by Watching Objects Move

    This paper presents a novel yet intuitive approach to unsupervised feature learning. Inspired by the human visual system, we explore whether low-level motion-based grouping cues can be used to learn an effective visual representation. Specifically, we use unsupervised motion-based segmentation on videos to obtain segments, which we use as 'pseudo ground truth' to train a convolutional network to segment objects from a single frame. Given the extensive evidence that motion plays a key role in the development of the human visual system, we hope that this straightforward approach to unsupervised learning will be more effective than cleverly designed 'pretext' tasks studied in the literature. Indeed, our extensive experiments show that this is the case. When used for transfer learning on object detection, our representation significantly outperforms previous unsupervised approaches across multiple settings, especially when training data for the target task is scarce.

    12/19/2016 ∙ by Deepak Pathak, et al. ∙ 0 share

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