Richard Zhang

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  • Deep Parametric Shape Predictions using Distance Fields

    Many tasks in graphics and vision demand machinery for converting shapes into representations with sparse sets of parameters; these representations facilitate rendering, editing, and storage. When the source data is noisy or ambiguous, however, artists and engineers often manually construct such representations, a tedious and potentially time-consuming process. While advances in deep learning have been successfully applied to noisy geometric data, the task of generating parametric shapes has so far been difficult for these methods. Hence, we propose a new framework for predicting parametric shape primitives using deep learning. We use distance fields to transition between shape parameters like control points and input data on a raster grid. We demonstrate efficacy on 2D and 3D tasks, including font vectorization and surface abstraction.

    04/18/2019 ∙ by Dmitriy Smirnov, et al. ∙ 26 share

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  • Making Convolutional Networks Shift-Invariant Again

    Modern convolutional networks are not shift-invariant, as small input shifts or translations can cause drastic changes in the output. Commonly used downsampling methods, such as max-pooling, strided-convolution, and average-pooling, ignore the sampling theorem. The well-known signal processing fix is anti-aliasing by low-pass filtering before downsampling. However, simply inserting this module into deep networks leads to performance degradation; as a result, it is seldomly used today. We show that when integrated correctly, it is compatible with existing architectural components, such as max-pooling. The technique is general and can be incorporated across layer types and applications, such as image classification and conditional image generation. In addition to increased shift-invariance, we also observe, surprisingly, that anti-aliasing boosts accuracy in ImageNet classification, across several commonly-used architectures. This indicates that anti-aliasing serves as effective regularization. Our results demonstrate that this classical signal processing technique has been undeservingly overlooked in modern deep networks. Code and anti-aliased versions of popular networks will be made available at <https://richzhang.github.io/antialiased-cnns/> .

    04/25/2019 ∙ by Richard Zhang, et al. ∙ 10 share

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  • Detecting Photoshopped Faces by Scripting Photoshop

    Most malicious photo manipulations are created using standard image editing tools, such as Adobe Photoshop. We present a method for detecting one very popular Photoshop manipulation -- image warping applied to human faces -- using a model trained entirely using fake images that were automatically generated by scripting Photoshop itself. We show that our model outperforms humans at the task of recognizing manipulated images, can predict the specific location of edits, and in some cases can be used to "undo" a manipulation to reconstruct the original, unedited image. We demonstrate that the system can be successfully applied to real, artist-created image manipulations.

    06/13/2019 ∙ by Sheng-Yu Wang, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Split-Brain Autoencoders: Unsupervised Learning by Cross-Channel Prediction

    We propose split-brain autoencoders, a straightforward modification of the traditional autoencoder architecture, for unsupervised representation learning. The method adds a split to the network, resulting in two disjoint sub-networks. Each sub-network is trained to perform a difficult task -- predicting one subset of the data channels from another. Together, the sub-networks extract features from the entire input signal. By forcing the network to solve cross-channel prediction tasks, we induce a representation within the network which transfers well to other, unseen tasks. This method achieves state-of-the-art performance on several large-scale transfer learning benchmarks.

    11/29/2016 ∙ by Richard Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Colorful Image Colorization

    Given a grayscale photograph as input, this paper attacks the problem of hallucinating a plausible color version of the photograph. This problem is clearly underconstrained, so previous approaches have either relied on significant user interaction or resulted in desaturated colorizations. We propose a fully automatic approach that produces vibrant and realistic colorizations. We embrace the underlying uncertainty of the problem by posing it as a classification task and use class-rebalancing at training time to increase the diversity of colors in the result. The system is implemented as a feed-forward pass in a CNN at test time and is trained on over a million color images. We evaluate our algorithm using a "colorization Turing test," asking human participants to choose between a generated and ground truth color image. Our method successfully fools humans on 32 than previous methods. Moreover, we show that colorization can be a powerful pretext task for self-supervised feature learning, acting as a cross-channel encoder. This approach results in state-of-the-art performance on several feature learning benchmarks.

    03/28/2016 ∙ by Richard Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Toward Multimodal Image-to-Image Translation

    Many image-to-image translation problems are ambiguous, as a single input image may correspond to multiple possible outputs. In this work, we aim to model a distribution of possible outputs in a conditional generative modeling setting. The ambiguity of the mapping is distilled in a low-dimensional latent vector, which can be randomly sampled at test time. A generator learns to map the given input, combined with this latent code, to the output. We explicitly encourage the connection between output and the latent code to be invertible. This helps prevent a many-to-one mapping from the latent code to the output during training, also known as the problem of mode collapse, and produces more diverse results. We explore several variants of this approach by employing different training objectives, network architectures, and methods of injecting the latent code. Our proposed method encourages bijective consistency between the latent encoding and output modes. We present a systematic comparison of our method and other variants on both perceptual realism and diversity.

    11/30/2017 ∙ by Jun-Yan Zhu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Deep Features as a Perceptual Metric

    While it is nearly effortless for humans to quickly assess the perceptual similarity between two images, the underlying processes are thought to be quite complex. Despite this, the most widely used perceptual metrics today, such as PSNR and SSIM, are simple, shallow functions, and fail to account for many nuances of human perception. Recently, the deep learning community has found that features of the VGG network trained on the ImageNet classification task has been remarkably useful as a training loss for image synthesis. But how perceptual are these so-called "perceptual losses"? What elements are critical for their success? To answer these questions, we introduce a new Full Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA) dataset of perceptual human judgments, orders of magnitude larger than previous datasets. We systematically evaluate deep features across different architectures and tasks and compare them with classic metrics. We find that deep features outperform all previous metrics by huge margins. More surprisingly, this result is not restricted to ImageNet-trained VGG features, but holds across different deep architectures and levels of supervision (supervised, self-supervised, or even unsupervised). Our results suggest that perceptual similarity is an emergent property shared across deep visual representations.

    01/11/2018 ∙ by Richard Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Stochastic Adversarial Video Prediction

    Being able to predict what may happen in the future requires an in-depth understanding of the physical and causal rules that govern the world. A model that is able to do so has a number of appealing applications, from robotic planning to representation learning. However, learning to predict raw future observations, such as frames in a video, is exceedingly challenging -- the ambiguous nature of the problem can cause a naively designed model to average together possible futures into a single, blurry prediction. Recently, this has been addressed by two distinct approaches: (a) latent variational variable models that explicitly model underlying stochasticity and (b) adversarially-trained models that aim to produce naturalistic images. However, a standard latent variable model can struggle to produce realistic results, and a standard adversarially-trained model underutilizes latent variables and fails to produce diverse predictions. We show that these distinct methods are in fact complementary. Combining the two produces predictions that look more realistic to human raters and better cover the range of possible futures. Our method outperforms prior and concurrent work in these aspects.

    04/04/2018 ∙ by Alex X. Lee, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Real-Time User-Guided Image Colorization with Learned Deep Priors

    We propose a deep learning approach for user-guided image colorization. The system directly maps a grayscale image, along with sparse, local user "hints" to an output colorization with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Rather than using hand-defined rules, the network propagates user edits by fusing low-level cues along with high-level semantic information, learned from large-scale data. We train on a million images, with simulated user inputs. To guide the user towards efficient input selection, the system recommends likely colors based on the input image and current user inputs. The colorization is performed in a single feed-forward pass, enabling real-time use. Even with randomly simulated user inputs, we show that the proposed system helps novice users quickly create realistic colorizations, and offers large improvements in colorization quality with just a minute of use. In addition, we demonstrate that the framework can incorporate other user "hints" to the desired colorization, showing an application to color histogram transfer. Our code and models are available at https://richzhang.github.io/ideepcolor.

    05/08/2017 ∙ by Richard Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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