Matthias Zwicker

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  • Smart, Deep Copy-Paste

    In this work, we propose a novel system for smart copy-paste, enabling the synthesis of high-quality results given a masked source image content and a target image context as input. Our system naturally resolves both shading and geometric inconsistencies between source and target image, resulting in a merged result image that features the content from the pasted source image, seamlessly pasted into the target context. Our framework is based on a novel training image transformation procedure that allows to train a deep convolutional neural network end-to-end to automatically learn a representation that is suitable for copy-pasting. Our training procedure works with any image dataset without additional information such as labels, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our system on two popular datasets, high-resolution face images and the more complex Cityscapes dataset. Our technique outperforms the current state of the art on face images, and we show promising results on the Cityscapes dataset, demonstrating that our system generalizes to much higher resolution than the training data.

    03/15/2019 ∙ by Tiziano Portenier, et al. ∙ 79 share

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  • Understanding the (un)interpretability of natural image distributions using generative models

    Probability density estimation is a classical and well studied problem, but standard density estimation methods have historically lacked the power to model complex and high-dimensional image distributions. More recent generative models leverage the power of neural networks to implicitly learn and represent probability models over complex images. We describe methods to extract explicit probability density estimates from GANs, and explore the properties of these image density functions. We perform sanity check experiments to provide evidence that these probabilities are reasonable. However, we also show that density functions of natural images are difficult to interpret and thus limited in use. We study reasons for this lack of interpretability, and show that we can get interpretability back by doing density estimation on latent representations of images.

    01/06/2019 ∙ by Ryen Krusinga, et al. ∙ 20 share

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  • View Inter-Prediction GAN: Unsupervised Representation Learning for 3D Shapes by Learning Global Shape Memories to Support Local View Predictions

    In this paper we present a novel unsupervised representation learning approach for 3D shapes, which is an important research challenge as it avoids the manual effort required for collecting supervised data. Our method trains an RNN-based neural network architecture to solve multiple view inter-prediction tasks for each shape. Given several nearby views of a shape, we define view inter-prediction as the task of predicting the center view between the input views, and reconstructing the input views in a low-level feature space. The key idea of our approach is to implement the shape representation as a shape-specific global memory that is shared between all local view inter-predictions for each shape. Intuitively, this memory enables the system to aggregate information that is useful to better solve the view inter-prediction tasks for each shape, and to leverage the memory as a view-independent shape representation. Our approach obtains the best results using a combination of L_2 and adversarial losses for the view inter-prediction task. We show that VIP-GAN outperforms state-of-the-art methods in unsupervised 3D feature learning on three large scale 3D shape benchmarks.

    11/07/2018 ∙ by Zhizhong Han, et al. ∙ 10 share

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  • Video Synthesis from a Single Image and Motion Stroke

    In this paper, we propose a new method to automatically generate a video sequence from a single image and a user provided motion stroke. Generating a video sequence based on a single input image has many applications in visual content creation, but it is tedious and time-consuming to produce even for experienced artists. Automatic methods have been proposed to address this issue, but most existing video prediction approaches require multiple input frames. In addition, generated sequences have limited variety since the output is mostly determined by the input frames, without allowing the user to provide additional constraints on the result. In our technique, users can control the generated animation using a sketch stroke on a single input image. We train our system such that the trajectory of the animated object follows the stroke, which makes it both more flexible and more controllable. From a single image, users can generate a variety of video sequences corresponding to different sketch inputs. Our method is the first system that, given a single frame and a motion stroke, can generate animations by recurrently generating videos frame by frame. An important benefit of the recurrent nature of our architecture is that it facilitates the synthesis of an arbitrary number of generated frames. Our architecture uses an autoencoder and a generative adversarial network (GAN) to generate sharp texture images, and we use another GAN to guarantee that transitions between frames are realistic and smooth. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on the MNIST, KTH, and Human 3.6M datasets.

    12/05/2018 ∙ by Qiyang Hu, et al. ∙ 10 share

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  • Y^2Seq2Seq: Cross-Modal Representation Learning for 3D Shape and Text by Joint Reconstruction and Prediction of View and Word Sequences

    A recent method employs 3D voxels to represent 3D shapes, but this limits the approach to low resolutions due to the computational cost caused by the cubic complexity of 3D voxels. Hence the method suffers from a lack of detailed geometry. To resolve this issue, we propose Y^2Seq2Seq, a view-based model, to learn cross-modal representations by joint reconstruction and prediction of view and word sequences. Specifically, the network architecture of Y^2Seq2Seq bridges the semantic meaning embedded in the two modalities by two coupled `Y' like sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) structures. In addition, our novel hierarchical constraints further increase the discriminability of the cross-modal representations by employing more detailed discriminative information. Experimental results on cross-modal retrieval and 3D shape captioning show that Y^2Seq2Seq outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

    11/07/2018 ∙ by Zhizhong Han, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Specular-to-Diffuse Translation for Multi-View Reconstruction

    Most multi-view 3D reconstruction algorithms, especially when shape-from-shading cues are used, assume that object appearance is predominantly diffuse. To alleviate this restriction, we introduce S2Dnet, a generative adversarial network for transferring multiple views of objects with specular reflection into diffuse ones, so that multi-view reconstruction methods can be applied more effectively. Our network extends unsupervised image-to-image translation to multi-view "specular to diffuse" translation. To preserve object appearance across multiple views, we introduce a Multi-View Coherence loss (MVC) that evaluates the similarity and faithfulness of local patches after the view-transformation. Our MVC loss ensures that the similarity of local correspondences among multi-view images is preserved under the image-to-image translation. As a result, our network yields significantly better results than several single-view baseline techniques. In addition, we carefully design and generate a large synthetic training data set using physically-based rendering. During testing, our network takes only the raw glossy images as input, without extra information such as segmentation masks or lighting estimation. Results demonstrate that multi-view reconstruction can be significantly improved using the images filtered by our network. We also show promising performance on real world training and testing data.

    07/14/2018 ∙ by Shihao Wu, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Point2Sequence: Learning the Shape Representation of 3D Point Clouds with an Attention-based Sequence to Sequence Network

    Exploring contextual information in the local region is important for shape understanding and analysis. Existing studies often employ hand-crafted or explicit ways to encode contextual information of local regions. However, it is hard to capture fine-grained contextual information in hand-crafted or explicit manners, such as the correlation between different areas in a local region, which limits the discriminative ability of learned features. To resolve this issue, we propose a novel deep learning model for 3D point clouds, named Point2Sequence, to learn 3D shape features by capturing fine-grained contextual information in a novel implicit way. Point2Sequence employs a novel sequence learning model for point clouds to capture the correlations by aggregating multi-scale areas of each local region with attention. Specifically, Point2Sequence first learns the feature of each area scale in a local region. Then, it captures the correlation between area scales in the process of aggregating all area scales using a recurrent neural network (RNN) based encoder-decoder structure, where an attention mechanism is proposed to highlight the importance of different area scales. Experimental results show that Point2Sequence achieves state-of-the-art performance in shape classification and segmentation tasks.

    11/06/2018 ∙ by Xinhai Liu, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Learning to Importance Sample in Primary Sample Space

    Importance sampling is one of the most widely used variance reduction strategies in Monte Carlo rendering. In this paper, we propose a novel importance sampling technique that uses a neural network to learn how to sample from a desired density represented by a set of samples. Our approach considers an existing Monte Carlo rendering algorithm as a black box. During a scene-dependent training phase, we learn to generate samples with a desired density in the primary sample space of the rendering algorithm using maximum likelihood estimation. We leverage a recent neural network architecture that was designed to represent real-valued non-volume preserving ('Real NVP') transformations in high dimensional spaces. We use Real NVP to non-linearly warp primary sample space and obtain desired densities. In addition, Real NVP efficiently computes the determinant of the Jacobian of the warp, which is required to implement the change of integration variables implied by the warp. A main advantage of our approach is that it is agnostic of underlying light transport effects, and can be combined with many existing rendering techniques by treating them as a black box. We show that our approach leads to effective variance reduction in several practical scenarios.

    08/23/2018 ∙ by Quan Zheng, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Parts4Feature: Learning 3D Global Features from Generally Semantic Parts in Multiple Views

    Deep learning has achieved remarkable results in 3D shape analysis by learning global shape features from the pixel-level over multiple views. Previous methods, however, compute low-level features for entire views without considering part-level information. In contrast, we propose a deep neural network, called Parts4Feature, to learn 3D global features from part-level information in multiple views. We introduce a novel definition of generally semantic parts, which Parts4Feature learns to detect in multiple views from different 3D shape segmentation benchmarks. A key idea of our architecture is that it transfers the ability to detect semantically meaningful parts in multiple views to learn 3D global features. Parts4Feature achieves this by combining a local part detection branch and a global feature learning branch with a shared region proposal module. The global feature learning branch aggregates the detected parts in terms of learned part patterns with a novel multi-attention mechanism, while the region proposal module enables locally and globally discriminative information to be promoted by each other. We demonstrate that Parts4Feature outperforms the state-of-the-art under three large-scale 3D shape benchmarks.

    05/18/2019 ∙ by Zhizhong Han, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Disentangling Factors of Variation by Mixing Them

    We propose an unsupervised approach to learn image representations that consist of disentangled factors of variation. A factor of variation corresponds to an image attribute that can be discerned consistently across a set of images, such as the pose or color of objects. Our disentangled representation consists of a concatenation of feature chunks, each chunk representing a factor of variation. It supports applications such as transferring attributes from one image to another, by simply swapping feature chunks, and classification or retrieval based on one or several attributes, by considering a user specified subset of feature chunks. We learn our representation in an unsupervised manner, without any labeling or knowledge of the data domain, using an autoencoder architecture with two novel training objectives: first, we propose an invariance objective to encourage that encoding of each attribute, and decoding of each chunk, are invariant to changes in other attributes and chunks, respectively, and second, we include a classification objective, which ensures that each chunk corresponds to a consistently discernible attribute in the represented image, hence avoiding the shortcut where chunks are ignored completely. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on the MNIST, Sprites, and CelebA datasets.

    11/20/2017 ∙ by Qiyang Hu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Challenges in Disentangling Independent Factors of Variation

    We study the problem of building models that disentangle independent factors of variation. Such models could be used to encode features that can efficiently be used for classification and to transfer attributes between different images in image synthesis. As data we use a weakly labeled training set. Our weak labels indicate what single factor has changed between two data samples, although the relative value of the change is unknown. This labeling is of particular interest as it may be readily available without annotation costs. To make use of weak labels we introduce an autoencoder model and train it through constraints on image pairs and triplets. We formally prove that without additional knowledge there is no guarantee that two images with the same factor of variation will be mapped to the same feature. We call this issue the reference ambiguity. Moreover, we show the role of the feature dimensionality and adversarial training. We demonstrate experimentally that the proposed model can successfully transfer attributes on several datasets, but show also cases when the reference ambiguity occurs.

    11/07/2017 ∙ by Attila Szabó, et al. ∙ 0 share

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