Antoine Bosselut

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  • COMET: Commonsense Transformers for Automatic Knowledge Graph Construction

    We present the first comprehensive study on automatic knowledge base construction for two prevalent commonsense knowledge graphs: ATOMIC (Sap et al., 2019) and ConceptNet (Speer et al., 2017). Contrary to many conventional KBs that store knowledge with canonical templates, commonsense KBs only store loosely structured open-text descriptions of knowledge. We posit that an important step toward automatic commonsense completion is the development of generative models of commonsense knowledge, and propose COMmonsEnse Transformers (COMET) that learn to generate rich and diverse commonsense descriptions in natural language. Despite the challenges of commonsense modeling, our investigation reveals promising results when implicit knowledge from deep pre-trained language models is transferred to generate explicit knowledge in commonsense knowledge graphs. Empirical results demonstrate that COMET is able to generate novel knowledge that humans rate as high quality, with up to 77.5 approaches human performance for these resources. Our findings suggest that using generative commonsense models for automatic commonsense KB completion could soon be a plausible alternative to extractive methods.

    06/12/2019 ∙ by Antoine Bosselut, et al. ∙ 25 share

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  • Simulating Action Dynamics with Neural Process Networks

    Understanding procedural language requires anticipating the causal effects of actions, even when they are not explicitly stated. In this work, we introduce Neural Process Networks to understand procedural text through (neural) simulation of action dynamics. Our model complements existing memory architectures with dynamic entity tracking by explicitly modeling actions as state transformers. The model updates the states of the entities by executing learned action operators. Empirical results demonstrate that our proposed model can reason about the unstated causal effects of actions, allowing it to provide more accurate contextual information for understanding and generating procedural text, all while offering more interpretable internal representations than existing alternatives.

    11/14/2017 ∙ by Antoine Bosselut, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Deep Communicating Agents for Abstractive Summarization

    We present deep communicating agents in an encoder-decoder architecture to address the challenges of representing a long document for abstractive summarization. With deep communicating agents, the task of encoding a long text is divided across multiple collaborating agents, each in charge of a subsection of the input text. These encoders are connected to a single decoder, trained end-to-end using reinforcement learning to generate a focused and coherent summary. Empirical results demonstrate that multiple communicating encoders lead to a higher quality summary compared to several strong baselines, including those based on a single encoder or multiple non-communicating encoders.

    03/27/2018 ∙ by Asli Celikyilmaz, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Discourse-Aware Neural Rewards for Coherent Text Generation

    In this paper, we investigate the use of discourse-aware rewards with reinforcement learning to guide a model to generate long, coherent text. In particular, we propose to learn neural rewards to model cross-sentence ordering as a means to approximate desired discourse structure. Empirical results demonstrate that a generator trained with the learned reward produces more coherent and less repetitive text than models trained with cross-entropy or with reinforcement learning with commonly used scores as rewards.

    05/10/2018 ∙ by Antoine Bosselut, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Modeling Naive Psychology of Characters in Simple Commonsense Stories

    Understanding a narrative requires reading between the lines and reasoning about the unspoken but obvious implications about events and people's mental states - a capability that is trivial for humans but remarkably hard for machines. To facilitate research addressing this challenge, we introduce a new annotation framework to explain naive psychology of story characters as fully-specified chains of mental states with respect to motivations and emotional reactions. Our work presents a new large-scale dataset with rich low-level annotations and establishes baseline performance on several new tasks, suggesting avenues for future research.

    05/16/2018 ∙ by Hannah Rashkin, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning to Write with Cooperative Discriminators

    Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are powerful autoregressive sequence models, but when used to generate natural language their output tends to be overly generic, repetitive, and self-contradictory. We postulate that the objective function optimized by RNN language models, which amounts to the overall perplexity of a text, is not expressive enough to capture the notion of communicative goals described by linguistic principles such as Grice's Maxims. We propose learning a mixture of multiple discriminative models that can be used to complement the RNN generator and guide the decoding process. Human evaluation demonstrates that text generated by our system is preferred over that of baselines by a large margin and significantly enhances the overall coherence, style, and information content of the generated text.

    05/16/2018 ∙ by Ari Holtzman, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Reasoning about Actions and State Changes by Injecting Commonsense Knowledge

    Comprehending procedural text, e.g., a paragraph describing photosynthesis, requires modeling actions and the state changes they produce, so that questions about entities at different timepoints can be answered. Although several recent systems have shown impressive progress in this task, their predictions can be globally inconsistent or highly improbable. In this paper, we show how the predicted effects of actions in the context of a paragraph can be improved in two ways: (1) by incorporating global, commonsense constraints (e.g., a non-existent entity cannot be destroyed), and (2) by biasing reading with preferences from large-scale corpora (e.g., trees rarely move). Unlike earlier methods, we treat the problem as a neural structured prediction task, allowing hard and soft constraints to steer the model away from unlikely predictions. We show that the new model significantly outperforms earlier systems on a benchmark dataset for procedural text comprehension (+8 that it also avoids some of the nonsensical predictions that earlier systems make.

    08/29/2018 ∙ by Niket Tandon, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Efficient Adaptation of Pretrained Transformers for Abstractive Summarization

    Large-scale learning of transformer language models has yielded improvements on a variety of natural language understanding tasks. Whether they can be effectively adapted for summarization, however, has been less explored, as the learned representations are less seamlessly integrated into existing neural text production architectures. In this work, we propose two solutions for efficiently adapting pretrained transformer language models as text summarizers: source embeddings and domain-adaptive training. We test these solutions on three abstractive summarization datasets, achieving new state of the art performance on two of them. Finally, we show that these improvements are achieved by producing more focused summaries with fewer superfluous and that performance improvements are more pronounced on more abstractive datasets.

    06/01/2019 ∙ by Andrew Hoang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Be Consistent! Improving Procedural Text Comprehension using Label Consistency

    Our goal is procedural text comprehension, namely tracking how the properties of entities (e.g., their location) change with time given a procedural text (e.g., a paragraph about photosynthesis, a recipe). This task is challenging as the world is changing throughout the text, and despite recent advances, current systems still struggle with this task. Our approach is to leverage the fact that, for many procedural texts, multiple independent descriptions are readily available, and that predictions from them should be consistent (label consistency). We present a new learning framework that leverages label consistency during training, allowing consistency bias to be built into the model. Evaluation on a standard benchmark dataset for procedural text, ProPara (Dalvi et al., 2018), shows that our approach significantly improves prediction performance (F1) over prior state-of-the-art systems.

    06/21/2019 ∙ by Xinya Du, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Cooperative Generator-Discriminator Networks for Abstractive Summarization with Narrative Flow

    We introduce Cooperative Generator-Discriminator Networks (Co-opNet), a general framework for abstractive summarization with distinct modeling of the narrative flow in the output summary. Most current approaches to abstractive summarization, in contrast, are based on datasets whose target summaries are either a single sentence, or a bag of standalone sentences (e.g., extracted highlights of a story), neither of which allows for learning coherent narrative flow in the output summaries. To promote research toward abstractive summarization with narrative flow, we first introduce a new dataset, Scientific Abstract SummarieS (SASS), where the abstracts are used as proxy gold summaries for scientific articles. We then propose Co-opNet, a novel transformer-based framework where the generator works with the discourse discriminator to compose a long-form summary. Empirical results demonstrate that Co-opNet learns to summarize with considerably improved global coherence compared to competitive baselines.

    07/02/2019 ∙ by Saadia Gabriel, et al. ∙ 0 share

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